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Location Type

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Agencies may specify the location of an offense within a hate crime incident as 1 of 46 location designations. However, not all reporting agencies have made the programming changes to allow the relatively new location designations; therefore, the data collected to date are not yet representative of all location designations. Also, the location type cyberspace is collected in the National Incident-Based Reporting System only. The location designations of the hate crime incidents reported in 2018 (based on Table 10) were:

  • 25.7 percent of hate crime incidents happened in or near residences/homes.
  • 18.7 percent occurred on highways/roads/alleys/streets/sidewalks.
  • 9.2 percent took place at schools/colleges (based on 3 designations).
  • 5.3 percent happened in parking/drop lots/garages.
  • 3.7 percent occurred in churches/synagogues/temples/mosques.
  • 2.7 percent took place in restaurants.
  • 2.3 percent happened in government/public buildings.
  • 2.0 percent occurred in commercial office buildings.
  • 2.0 percent took place in convenience stores.
  • 1.7 percent happened in bars/nightclubs.
  • 1.6 percent occurred in air/bus/train terminals.
  • 1.6 percent took place in department/discount stores.
  • 1.5 percent happened at parks/playgrounds.
  • 1.4 percent occurred in grocery/supermarkets.
  • 1.3 percent took place in drug stores/doctors’ offices/hospitals.
  • 1.3 percent occurred in service/gas stations.
  • 1.1 percent happened in specialty stores (TV, fur, etc.).
  • 5.8 percent of hate crimes occurred in the remaining specified location categories or in multiple locations.
  • 11.2 percent took place in other/unknown locations.

Location by bias motivation

Race/ethnicity/ancestry bias

Law enforcement reported 4,047 hate crime incidents motivated by race/ethnicity/ancestry bias in 2018. Of these:

  • 25.8 percent happened in or near residences/homes.
  • 20.9 percent occurred on highways/roads/alleys/streets/sidewalks.
  • 8.5 percent took place at schools/colleges (based on 3 designations).
  • 6.1 percent happened in parking/drop lots/garages.
  • 3.4 percent occurred in restaurants.
  • 2.9 percent took place in government/public buildings.
  • 2.5 percent happened at convenience stores.
  • 2.4 percent occurred in commercial/office buildings.
  • 1.9 percent took place in grocery/supermarkets.
  • 1.7 percent happened at parks/playgrounds.
  • 1.7 percent occurred at air/bus/train terminals.
  • 1.6 percent took place at department/discount stores.
  • 1.6 percent happened in drug stores/doctors’ offices/hospitals.
  • 1.6 percent occurred at service/gas stations.
  • 1.4 percent took place in specialty stores (TV, fur, etc.).
  • 1.3 percent happened in bars/nightclubs.
  • 6.9 percent occurred in the remaining specified location categories or in multiple locations.
  • 8.3 percent took place in other/unknown locations.

Religious bias

Of the 1,419 reported hate crime incidents that occurred due to a religious bias:

  • 21.4 percent happened in or near residences/homes.
  • 15.4 percent occurred in churches/synagogues/temples/mosques.
  • 11.6 percent took place at schools/colleges (based on 3 designations).
  • 10.1 percent happened on highways/roads/alleys/streets/sidewalks.
  • 4.0 percent occurred in parking/drop lots/garages.
  • 1.6 percent took place in commercial office buildings.
  • 1.6 percent happened in government/public buildings.
  • 11.4 percent occurred in the remaining specified location categories or in multiple locations.
  • 23.0 percent took place in other/unknown locations.

Sexual-orientation bias

Law enforcement reported that bias motivation against a particular sexual orientation prompted 1,196 hate crime incidents in 2018. Of these:

  • 29.4 percent happened in or near residences/homes.
  • 21.7 percent occurred on highways/roads/alleys/streets/sidewalks.
  • 8.1 percent took place at schools/colleges (based on 3 designations).
  • 4.9 percent happened in bars/nightclubs.
  • 4.9 percent occurred in parking/drop lots/garages.
  • 2.8 percent took place in air/bus/train terminals.
  • 2.5 percent happened in restaurants.
  • 1.7 percent occurred at parks/playgrounds.
  • 1.6 percent took place in convenience stores.
  • 1.6 percent happened in jails/prisons/penitentiaries/corrections facilities.
  • 1.4 percent occurred in hotels/motels/etc.
  • 1.3 percent took place in commercial office buildings.
  • 1.0 percent happened in churches/synagogues/temples/mosques.
  • 1.0 percent occurred in government/public buildings.
  • 6.9 percent took place in the remaining specified location categories or in multiple locations.
  • 9.0 percent happened in other/unknown locations.

Disability bias

Bias against individuals with a disability (either physical or mental) motivated 159 reported hate crime incidents in 2018. Of these:

  • 41.5 percent occurred in or near residences/homes.
  • 14.5 percent took place on highways/roads/alleys/streets/sidewalks.
  • 7.5 percent happened in schools/colleges (based on 3 designations).
  • 5.0 percent occurred in parking/drop lots/garages.
  • 4.4 percent took place in drug stores/doctor’s offices/hospitals.
  • 2.5 percent happened in convenience stores.
  • 2.5 percent occurred in department/discount stores.
  • 2.5 percent took place in government/public buildings.
  • 1.9 percent happened in banks/savings and loans.
  • 1.9 percent occurred in grocery/supermarkets.
  • 10.1 percent took place in the remaining specified location categories or in multiple locations.
  • 5.7 percent happened in other/unknown locations.

Gender bias

Law enforcement reported 47 gender bias hate crimes in 2018. Of these:

  • 18 occurred at residences/homes.
  • 5 happened at schools/colleges (based on 3 designations).
  • 4 took place on highways/roads/alleys/streets/sidewalks.
  • 3 occurred in commercial office buildings.
  • 3 took place in parking/drop lots/garages.
  • 2 happened in department/discount stores.
  • 2 occurred in government/public buildings.
  • 5 took place in the remaining specified locations.
  • 5 happened in other/unknown locations.

Gender identity bias

During 2018, 168 hate crimes motivated by gender identity bias were reported. Of these:

  • 25.0 percent occurred on highways/roads/alleys/streets/sidewalks.
  • 19.6 percent took place at residences/homes.
  • 7.1 percent happened at schools/colleges (based on 3 designations).
  • 4.2 percent occurred in parking/drop lots/garages.
  • 3.6 percent took place in air/bus/train terminals.
  • 3.6 percent happened in department/discount stores.
  • 3.6 percent occurred in restaurants.
  • 3.0 percent took place in convenience stores.
  • 3.0 percent happened in grocery/supermarkets.
  • 2.4 percent occurred in commercial office buildings.
  • 2.4 percent took place at service/gas stations.
  • 1.8 percent happened at parks/playgrounds.
  • 1.8 percent occurred at shelters—mission/homeless.
  • 11.3 percent took place in the remaining specified location categories or in multiple locations.
  • 7.7 percent happened at other/unknown locations.

Multiple-bias incidents

Eighty-four multiple-bias hate crime incidents were reported in 2018. Of these:

  • 23 occurred in schools/colleges (based on 3 designations).
  • 16 took place in or near residences/homes.
  • 11 happened on highways/roads/alleys/streets/sidewalks.
  • 5 occurred in department/discount stores.
  • 5 took place in government/public buildings.
  • 3 happened in churches/synagogues/temples/mosques.
  • 2 occurred in commercial office buildings.
  • 2 took place in an air/bus/train terminals.
  • 2 happened in drug stores/doctor’s offices/hospitals.
  • 2 occurred in specialty stores (TV, fur, etc.).
  • 1 took place in a parking/drop lot/garage.
  • 1 happened in a bar/nightclub.
  • 1 occurred in a field/woods.
  • 1 took place in a restaurant.
  • 1 happened at a community center.
  • 1 occurred at a construction site.
  • 1 took place in cyberspace.
  • 1 happened at a lake/waterway/beach.
  • 1 occurred at a shopping mall.
  • 4 were reported in the other/unknown location category.