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2001 Bulletins

Developments in the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)

Note: The excerpts are presented as they were originally published in the UCR State Program Bulletin and therefore will include any additions, deletions, or clarifications released in subsequent bulletins. Readers are urged to read this document in its entirety before making any programming changes.

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UCR State Program Bulletin 01-1, July 2001

Clarification of the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) Delete Procedures

The following is intended as a clarification to the procedures governing the delete function explained in Section I of NIBRS Volume 2: Data Submission Specifications (May 1992). The NIBRS Segment Action Type of “D” = Delete is valid for Segment Levels 0, 1, 3, 6, and 7.

The use of Segment Action Type of “D” = Delete with the . . . yields the following result:
Level 0 (Zero-Reporting Segment) Deletes the zero-report submission in the NIBRS database for the ORI (Data Element 1) and for the year and the month for which the data were submitted.
Level 1 (Administrative Segment) Deletes all of the segments (Levels 1-6) associated with the Group “A” Incident Report. However, a Level 1 delete submitted for a Time-Window record deletes Level(s) 1, 3, and/or 6.
Level 3 (Property Segment) valid only if the record was previously reported as a Time-Window submission Deletes all recovered property data (the only valid kind for Type Property Loss/Etc. [Data Element 14] in a Time-Window Submission) on file for the record.
Level 6 (Arrestee Segment) valid only if the record was previously reported as a Time-Window submission Deletes only the arrestee on file for the ORI (Data Element 1) and incident number (Data Element 2) that has the same arrestee sequence number (Data Element 40) as the submitted delete arrest record.
Level 7 (Group “B” Arrest Report Segment) Deletes all of the Group “B” Arrest Report(s). If an arrestee (sequence) number (Data Element 40) is submitted, only that arrestee will be removed from the NIBRS database. If the arrestee (sequence) number (Data Element 40) is left blank on the delete record, all Group “B” Arrest Reports for that ORI (Data Element 1) and arrest (transaction) number (Data Element 41) (which could be the same as the incident number [Data Element 2]) will be removed.



Misuse of Code “00” for NIBRS Data Element 3, Incident Date/Hour

It has come to the attention of the national Program that several law enforcement agencies are misreporting Data Element 3, Incident Hour, as 00 when the Incident Hour is unknown. According to NIBRS Volume 1: Data Collection Guidelines (August 2000), “if the Incident Hour is unknown, the hour should be left blank. If the incident occurred on or between midnight and 0059, 00 should be entered; if on or between 0100 and 0159, 01 should be entered; if on or between 2300 and 2359, 23 should be entered; etc. . . .” (page 69).

NIBRS Data Element 12, Type Criminal Activity/Gang Information

As specified in the UCR State Program Bulletin dated June 30, 1997, a gang must meet the following criteria:

—an ongoing organization, association, or group of three or more persons,

—have a common interest and/or activity characterized by the commission of or involvement in a pattern of criminal or delinquent conduct.

Once it is determined that gang activity was involved in the commission of one of the 11 violent offenses, it is incumbent upon the reporting agency to indicate one of the following valid codes:

“J” = Juvenile Gang
“G” = Other Gang
“N” = None/Unknown

Recently, several questions have risen regarding the definition of a “Juvenile Gang” and an “Other Gang” for NIBRS reporting purposes. According to the established guidelines of the national UCR Program, a “Juvenile Gang” meets the criteria mentioned in the gang definition above, and the membership is predominantly juvenile (under 18 years of age). In order for the code “J” to be associated with the criminal activity being reported, the gang’s membership does not have to be entirely comprised of juveniles, nor does the offender in the incident have to be a juvenile. Instead, the reporting agency need only establish that the gang’s membership is predominantly juvenile. Conversely, if the gang is comprised of members who are predominantly 18 years of age or older, the criminal activity should be coded as “G” for “Other Gang.” When no gang involvement is associated with the offense, the reporting agency should indicate “None/Unknown.” The reporting agency should determine which code most appropriately describes the type, or lack of presence, of gang activity.

NIBRS Offense 250 Counterfeiting/Forgery

In the UCR State Program Bulletin dated December 22, 1999, the following example was used to show how to score a Counterfeiting/Forgery offense when forged checks or counterfeited money is used to obtain items such as cash, groceries, stereo equipment, etc. However, the Property Description was incorrectly coded as 22 = Nonnegotiable Instruments (no value) when it should have been code 21 = Negotiable Instruments with a value of $700 since the check was signed (even though it was a forged signature).

Example: A lone male enters the Sears department store to purchase a $400 TV and $300 VCR (retail value) with a forged check. Later, the store manager was notified that the purchase was made with a forged check. The manager then summoned the police to file a report. The incident should be reported as Offense Code 250 = Counterfeiting/ Forgery; Type Property Loss/Etc., code 3 = Counterfeited/Forged; Property Description, code 22 = Nonnegotiable Instruments (no value) code 21 = Negotiable Instruments ($700). Additionally, Offense Code 26A = False Pretenses/Swindle/Confidence Game; Type Property Loss/Etc., code 7 = Stolen/Etc.; Property Description, code 26 = Radios/ TV[s]/ VCRs; Value of Property, $550 (wholesale value) should be reported.

Converting “Other Assaults” From NIBRS Data to Summary Data

There have been some questions regarding the conversion of Other Assaults from NIBRS data to Summary data. This topic is addressed in Conversion of NIBRS Data to Summary Data (September 1999), page 3, Line 4e. NIBRS incidents containing an offense of 13B Simple Assault or 13C Intimidation should be scored as Other Assaults when converting them to Summary data. However, if a NIBRS incident contains a 13B Simple Assault or 13C Intimidation along with an Index offense or a 09B Negligent Manslaughter, the Summary Hierarchy Rule should be applied, and the Other Assault should not be scored.

Invalid Code Used for the Reporting of Bias Motivation

When reporting bias motivation types via Hate Crime Incident Report Forms and NIBRS Data Element 8A, Bias Motivation, a few states are submitting data with an invalid code of 31 to indicate Anti-Arab as an Ethnicity/National-Origin Bias. All contributors please note that 31 is not a valid bias motivation code. During NIBRS’ developmental stages, code 31 was accepted. However, in 1996 the code became invalid. Though the national Program currently accepts these data and converts the bias motivation code to 33 for Anti-Other Ethnicity/National Origin, programming changes are forthcoming that will result in the rejection of improperly coded data. A complete list of accepted codes for bias motivation types can be found on the Hate Crime Incident Report Form (July 23, 1996) and in NIBRS Volume 1: Data Collection Guidelines (August 2000), page 74, under Data Element 8A.

NIBRS Volume 4: Error Message Manual (December 1999)

The following error message number was omitted from the December 1999 revision of NIBRS Volume 4: Error Message Manual. Please add the error message number, shown in bold below, to the existing error message numbers under Arrestee Segment Edit # 41, Data Element Edits section, page 72:

41.
PARTICIPANT MUST KEEP TRACK OF ARRESTEE SEQUENCE NUMBERS





When submitting Arrestee Segments (Level 6) or Group “B” Arrest Reports (Level 7) with Segment Action Type of A = Add Arrest, the participant’s data processing software must keep track of the correct value to assign to Data Element 40 (Arrestee Sequence Number). Normally, the first arrestee should have a value of 01. But when there are multiple arrestees for the same incident, the next sequential number would be assigned by the participant. Submitting Arrestee Segments with duplicate numbers will result in a Segment Already On File error message.





(651, 661, 751)





The corresponding error message and text should be added to the Error Numbers and Messages section on page 126:



651
ARRESTEE DATA ALREADY EXISTS





When a Group “A” Incident Report has two or more arrestees (Level 6), the identifying fields cannot contain a duplicate. In this case, two arrestee segments were submitted having the same entry in Data Element 40 (Arrestee Sequence Number).


Two additional error message numbers and their corresponding messages should be added to Volume 4. The following text should be added to the bottom of page 124:

618
DATE CANNOT BE ON OR AFTER THE INACTIVE DATE [YYYYMMDD] OF THE ORI





The UCR Program has determined that an ORI will no longer be submitting arrest data to the FBI as of an inactive date. No arrest data from this ORI will be accepted after this date.


The information below should be added to the bottom of page 130:

718
DATE CANNOT BE ON OR AFTER THE INACTIVE DATE [YYYYMMDD] OF THE ORI





The UCR Program has determined that an ORI will no longer be submitting arrest data to the FBI as of an inactive date. No arrest data from this ORI will be accepted after this date.


Conversion of NIBRS Data to Summary Data (September 1999)

The Group “A” offense of 09B Negligent Manslaughter was inadvertently excluded from the list of Part I offenses in the Conversion of NIBRS Data to Summary Data publication (September 1999), page iii. The corrected excerpt of page iii, with the offense of 09B Negligent Manslaughter shown in bold between the offense codes of 09A and 11A, appears below:

When converting NIBRS data to Summary data, only one offense is taken from each NIBRS incident. The offense to be reported is selected based on the Hierarchy Rule, which ranks Index offenses from high to low as follows:

NIBRS offense code:
09A - Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter

09B–Negligent Manslaughter

11A–Forcible Rape

120–Robbery

13A–Aggravated Assault

220–Burglary/Breaking and Entering

23A–23H–Larceny-theft

240–Motor Vehicle The


* When it is necessary to choose between larceny-theft and motor vehicle theft in classifying, select motor vehicle theft. See the Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook, Summary edition, page 35, problem 4.

An exception to the rule is arson (offense code 200) if listed. In those situations where an arson occurs in conjunction with one or more additional offenses, the arson is reported and the Hierarchy Rule is applied to the remaining Index crimes.

In addition, it has come to the attention of the national Program that some clarification is needed concerning the conversion of the Group “A” offense of 09B Negligent Manslaughter. The Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook, Summary edition (1984), states, “The Crime Index is comprised of all of the Part I offenses with the exception of manslaughter by negligence (class 1.b)” (emphasis added) (page 5). Accordingly, though the offense of 09B Negligent Manslaughter is entered into the Summary Return A Master File during the conversion process, it will not be included in the agency’s Crime Index.

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UCR State Program Bulletin 01-2, August 2001

Selecting Property Description Values for Motor Vehicles

The national UCR Program staff have noted some discrepancies with the proper assignment of certain types of motor vehicles within the established Summary and National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) categories. Some of the vehicles in question include pickup trucks; pickup trucks with campers; vans; minivans; sport utility vehicles; and some automobile derivative vehicles such as Ranchero, El Camino, Caballero, Brat, etc. The Summary Reporting System Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook (1984) provides the following definitions for three categories of stolen motor vehicles (page 28):

7.a. Autos
Include in this category the thefts of all sedans, stationwagons [sic], coupes, convertibles, and other similar motor vehicles which serve the primary purpose of transporting people from one place to another. Also include automobiles used as taxis. (Emphasis added.)

7.b. Trucks and Buses
This breakdown includes those vehicles specifically designed to transport people on a commercial basis and to transport cargo. Include pickup trucks and vans regardless of their use. In UCR, the self-propelled motor home is a truck. Some states allow a stationwagon [sic] to be registered as a truck; however, licensing should not be a determining factor and this vehicle for UCR purposes would be classified as an auto. (Emphasis added.)

7.c. Other Vehicles
This category includes all other motor vehicles limited by the UCR definition, such a[s] snowmobiles, motorcycles, motor scooters, trailbikes [sic], mopeds, golf carts, etc. Obviously, unique situations will arise. The classifier’s decision must be based on the results of law enforcement investigation and on UCR standards.

The following excerpts from pages 83-85 of NIBRS Volume 1: Data Collections Guidelines (August 2000) define property description values used for motor vehicles in NIBRS.

03 = Automobiles (sedans, coupes, station wagons, convertibles, taxicabs, and other similar motor vehicles that serve the primary purpose of transporting people) (Emphasis added.)



05 = Buses (motor vehicles that are specifically designed, but not necessarily used, to transport groups of people on a commercial basis)



24 = Other Motor Vehicles (any other motor vehicles, e.g., motorcycles, motor scooters, trail bikes, mopeds, snowmobiles, golf carts)



28 = Recreational Vehicles (motor vehicles that are specifically designed, but not necessarily used, to transport people and also provide them temporary lodging for recreational purposes)



37 = Trucks (motor vehicles which are specifically designed, but not necessarily used, to transport cargo) (Emphasis added.)


In response to the difficulties noted in properly assigning certain types of motor vehicles, the national UCR Program has established the guidelines below to aid agencies in properly selecting the motor vehicle/property description value:

Pickup trucks and pickup trucks with campers should be classified as 37 = Trucks, as they meet the definition specifically designed, but not necessarily used, to transport cargo.

Full-size vans, both regular wheelbase and extended wheelbase, may be classified into either 05 = Buses, 28 = Recreational Vehicles, or 37 = Trucks depending upon their configuration, i.e., vans with rows of seats (buses), custom vans with temporary lodging accommodations (recreational vehicles), and work vans with primarily cargo areas (trucks).

Minivans should be classified as 03 = Automobiles, as they meet the definition that serve the primary purpose of transporting people. This classification also includes automobiles used as taxis; sport-utility vehicles, such as Blazers, Broncos, Suburbans, etc.; and automobile derivative vehicles, such as Ranchero, El Camino, Caballero, Brat, etc.

NIBRS Property Descriptions for Vandalized Vehicles

Note: The following information supercedes the procedure for reporting Data Element 15 Property Description involving vandalism of a motor vehicle as described in the UCR State Program Bulletin 99-3, December 22, 1999; however, it does not affect the reporting procedures given for incidental damage. The referenced passage can be found on page 4, under Incidental Damage, where a smashed vehicle passenger side window was reported as 38 = Vehicle Parts/ Accessories.

When officers report vandalism of an auto, including breaking of the windshield and keying the car, they should use the code of the actual vehicle, i.e., 03 = Automobiles, 05 = Buses, 24 = Other Motor Vehicles, 28 = Recreational Vehicles, or 37 = Trucks because it is a better property description than 38 = Vehicle Parts/Accessories.

By using the actual vehicle type as the property description when a vehicle is vandalized, one makes a specific logical inference that vehicle parts of the automobile, truck, bus, recreational vehicle, or other motor vehicle were vandalized. When the property description is 38 = Vehicle Parts/Accessories, one cannot determine whether the vandalized parts and accessories were specifically from an automobile, truck, bus, recreational vehicle, or other motor vehicle. Hence, reporting agencies should use the most specific vehicle description instead of the description 38 = Vehicle Parts/Accessories.

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UCR State Program Bulletin 01-3, December 2001

NIBRS and the Current Submission of Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA) Data

LEOKA data cannot be completely obtained from the existing 53 NIBRS data elements, since additional data are needed that are not contained on the Group “A” Incident Report segments. NIBRS Volume 2: Data Submission Specifications (May 1992), pages 36-38, provides instructions for submitting LEOKA data on magnetic media. To ensure that LEOKA data are accurate and complete, the state’s monthly submission should include a record for each law enforcement agency to indicate the actual number of officers assaulted or zero officers assaulted. This is of further importance because in the annual publication Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted national and state officer assault data include those contributors who have submitted 12 months of officer assault data and police employee statistics. However, if state UCR Program managers do not receive any indication from a law enforcement agency that an officer assault did or did not occur, then they should not generate a LEOKA report and forward it to the national UCR Program for that agency.

Future LEOKA Submissions via NIBRS

Effective June 1, 2002, the national UCR Program will begin collecting LEOKA data at the incident level via NIBRS through three new data elements and a series of new data codes. In response to the need for an improved NIBRS collection method of LEOKA data, several state UCR Program managers reviewed the proposed format and arrived at a consensus to adopt it as a new record layout. Though this collection will eliminate the use of Form 1-705, “Law Enforcement Officers Killed or Assaulted,” it will not replace the need to submit the Form 1-701, “Analysis of Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted.” The national Program encourages all NIBRS agencies to report LEOKA data in the new NIBRS format. However, the FBI will continue to accept LEOKA data on magnetic media according to the instructions in the LEOKA section of NIBRS Volume 2: Data Submission Specifications (May 1992), pages 36-38, until such time as state and local agencies can meet this guideline. Reporting agencies should note that the LEOKA reporting method, i.e., use of the new NIBRS format (with the new elements) or the other LEOKA data record (specified in Volume 2) must be consistent among all reporting agencies within a state. Therefore, either all or none of the agencies who report NIBRS data within a state must report LEOKA data via the new NIBRS format for the victim segment, which is outlined below. (Modifications to the affected NIBRS volumes are forthcoming.)

4. Victim Segment (original format in NIBRS Volume 1: Data Collection Guidelines [August 2000], page 62)

Victim Segments are used to describe the victims involved in the incidents (e.g., their age, sex, and race). A separate Victim Segment should be submitted for each of the (up to 999) victims involved in the incident. There must be at least one Victim Segment in each incident report.

The data elements used in the Victim Segment follow:

[1 ORI Number]
[2 Incident Number]
23 Victim (Sequence) Number
24 Victim Connected to UCR Offense Code(s)
25 Type of Victim
*25A Type of Activity (Officer)/Circumstance
*25B Assignment Type (Officer)
*25C ORI–Other Jurisdiction (Officer)
26 Age (of Victim)
27 Sex (of Victim)
28 Race (of Victim)
29 Ethnicity (of Victim)
30 Resident Status (of Victim)
31 Aggravated Assault/Homicide Circumstances
32 Additional Justifiable Homicide Circumstances
33 Type Injury
34 Offender Numbers(s) to be Related
35 Relationship(s) of Victim to Offender(s)

*Denotes new data elements to capture LEOKA data.

New data codes for Data Element 25 (original text in NIBRS Volume 1: Data Collection Guidelines [August 2000], page 91), as well as explanations of the new data elements, their new codes, and applicable examples follow.

25 Type of Victim - one character (A): The type of victim should be entered into this data element. Only one code should be entered for each victim.

Allowed entries: (Enter only one.)

I = Individual
B = Business
F = Financial Institution
G = Government
R = Religious Organization
S = Society/Public
*L = Law Enforcement Officer (only valid for offenses 09A, 13A, 13B, and 13C)

O = Other
U = Unknown

*Denotes new code to capture LEOKA data.

Since all of the codes and examples for the new data elements are also new, they are not being emphasized from this point forward.

*25A Type of Activity (Officer)/Circumstance - two characters (A): Each time a law enforcement officer is assaulted in the line of duty, the reporting agency should determine the appropriate code (1-11) that corresponds to the type of activity in which the officer was engaged at the time of assault.

Allowed entries: (Enter only one.)

01 = Responding to Disturbance Call (Family Quarrels, Person with Firearm,         Etc.)
02 = Burglaries in Progress or Pursuing Burglary Suspects
03 = Robberies in Progress or Pursuing Robbery Suspects
04 = Attempting Other Arrests
05 = Civil Disorder (Riot, Mass Disobedience)
06 = Handling, Transporting, Custody of Prisoners
07 = Investigating Suspicious Persons or Circumstances
08 = Ambush—No Warning
09 = Mentally Deranged
10 = Traffic Pursuits and Stops
11 = All Other

*25B Assignment Type (Officer) - one character (A): Code F (Two-Officer Vehicle) and codes G and H (One-Officer Vehicle) pertain to uniformed officers; codes I and J (Detective or Special Assignment) to nonuniformed officers; and codes K and L (Other) to officers assaulted while in other capacities, such as foot patrol, off duty, etc. The term “assisted” refers to law enforcement assistance only.

Allowed entries: (Enter only one.)

F = Two-Officer Vehicle
G = One-Officer Vehicle (Alone)
H = One-Officer Vehicle (Assisted)
I = Detective or Special Assignment (Alone)
J = Detective or Special Assignment (Assisted)
K = Other (Alone)
L = Other (Assisted)

*25C ORI–Other Jurisdiction (Officer) - nine characters (A): This is the unique nine-character Originating Agency Identifier (ORI) Number that has been assigned to each agency by the National Crime Information Center. If a law enforcement officer is killed or injured in the line of duty in a jurisdiction other than his own, the law enforcement agency having jurisdiction should report the law enforcement officer killed or assaulted using Data Element 25C to identify the ORI of that law enforcement officer’s agency. No entry is required if the officer is assaulted in his own jurisdiction.

Example: On May 2, 2001, a law enforcement officer working in conjunction with a state narcotics task force in a jurisdiction outside his own duty assignment was shot in the arm while serving a warrant on an individual known to be operating a methamphetamine lab. In reporting the incident, the agency covering the jurisdiction in which the incident occurred should indicate Data Element 25C = ORI–Other Jurisdiction because the law enforcement officer was assaulted in the line of duty outside his regularly assigned jurisdiction.

Conversion Procedures for LEOKA Data Submitted via the New NIBRS Format

Currently, the national UCR Program converts all NIBRS data for each agency to the Summary format. Once agencies report their LEOKA data using the new NIBRS format, the national Program will also convert those data from NIBRS to Summary. Contributors should also note that the national program will not convert incidents containing an Intimidation (13C) for LEOKA from NIBRS to Summary data. The guidelines explained in the Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook, NIBRS Edition (1992), state, “Count all assaults which resulted in serious injury or in which a weapon was used which could have caused serious injury or death. Other assaults not causing injury should be included if they involved more than mere verbal abuse or minor resistance to an arrest” (page 63). Additional conversion specifications will be included when the Conversion of NIBRS Data to Summary Data manual is revised.

Hate Crime Publication Procedures for Data Reported via NIBRS

When law enforcement agencies in a state use NIBRS Data Element 8A to indicate bias motivation, the national UCR Hate Crime Data Collection Program considers the agencies to be participants in the Program and publishes data submitted by the agencies in the annual publication Hate Crime Statistics.

The following procedures are a composite of the processing rules the UCR computer system uses to capture hate crime data from the NIBRS database (direct references follow):

  • If at least one agency in a state uses NIBRS Data Element 8A in a single data submission, then all agencies in the same submission must use the data element; otherwise, the computer will reject the submission.
  • If a state elects not to use NIBRS Data Element 8A, then it must not include positions 62 and 63 of the Level 2-Offense Segment in a data submission. The computer will reject a submission when the physical length of any Offense Segment includes positions 62 and 63 and those fields are blank.
  • The computer captures NIBRS incident data in which the submitting agency has coded Data Element 8A in at least one Offense Segment within the incident as being bias motivated. Only offenses coded as bias motivated are included in the hate crime record.

Applicable References:

NIBRS Volume 4: Error Message Manual (December 1999), page 26

Once a [NIBRS] participant has added this data element [8A] into the Offense Segment (Level 2), the field becomes mandatory and cannot be blank. Conversely, if the participant has not yet adopted the data element, then the FBI’s computer will not reject the submission. Rejection only occurs when the physical length of the Offense Segment includes the two-character field and it is blank.

NIBRS Volume 2: Data Submission Specifications (May 1992), page 54

[NIBRS] [d]ata bases that have not adopted “8A” will not be required to submit this data element. These two positions [62 and 63] on the record can be ignored by writing the record as “61” bytes instead of “63.” When “8A” is included, one of the . . . codes [Valid Codes: 11-15, 21-27, 31-33, 41-45, 88, and 99] must be entered.* * The national Program has updated the policy on which this excerpt is based. Valid codes no longer include Bias Motivation Code 31, Anti-Arab.

Notification of Rejection and Resulting Error for the Use of an Invalid Bias-Motivation Code

In the July 2001 State Program Bulletin, the national UCR Program noted that a few states are using an invalid code of 31 to indicate Anti-Arab as an Ethnicity/National-Origin Bias when submitting Hate Crime Incident Report Forms and NIBRS Data Element 8A, Bias Motivation. Though the Program currently converts the improperly coded data to 33 for Anti-Other Ethnicity/National Origin, it advised via the July bulletin that programming changes would be forthcoming. Those changes, as they relate to the various methods of submission, follow:

Hate Crime Hard Copy Program—Effective immediately, the national UCR Program will permanently convert all previous submissions involving code 31 incidents to code 33. The national Program will reject new incidents containing code 31, and the agency must resubmit the data using the most appropriate code.

Hate Crime Disk, Summary, and NIBRS Computerized Collection Programs—Effective immediately, the national UCR Program will permanently convert all previous submissions involving code 31 incidents to code 33. The national Program will convert submissions with invalid codes made now through December 31, 2002, to code 33 and issue a warning message to the contributor stating that the data have been changed. Effective January 1, 2003, at the conclusion of the 1-year conversion period, the Program will reject any new incidents containing code 31 and issue an error message to the contributor stating that the code is invalid. Consequently, the agency must resubmit the data using the most appropriate code.

A complete list of accepted codes for bias motivation types can be found on the Hate Crime Incident Report Form (July 23, 1996) and in NIBRS Volume 1: Data Collection Guidelines (August 2000), page 74, under Data Element 8A.

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