Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA) Data Collection
Definitions and Examples
Accidental death – Incident type in which an officer was fatally injured as a result of an accident or negligence that occurred while the officer was acting in an official capacity. Due to the hazardous nature of the law enforcement profession, deaths of law enforcement officers are considered accidental if the cause of death is found not to be a willful and intentional act of another.
Active shooter – An individual actively engaged in killing or attempting to kill people in a confined and populated area.
Administrative assignment – An assignment in which an officer is working management, performance, or executive duties of the federal, state, or local jurisdiction. Examples include, but are not limited to:
- handling, transporting, or maintaining custody of persons who are in the custodial care of a law enforcement agency after an arrest and/or while dealing with persons who are being detained in accordance with the law.
- attending community meetings, crime preventive programs, or other organized functions as an official representative of a law enforcement agency.
- performing duties and recreational activities associated with agency-sanctioned programs, such as D.A.R.E., Boys and Girls Clubs, or other youth programs.
- serving of writs, notices, summonses, subpoenas, hearing notices, notifications, and other civil processes.
- transporting papers, equipment, or persons associated with official agency-sanctioned activities, functions, and programs.
Aggravated assault – An unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury. This type of assault is accompanied by the use of a weapon or by means likely to produce death or great bodily injury.
Alcohol – Any intoxicating liquors used for human consumption: alcoholic beverages, e.g., beer, wine, and liquor.
Ambush – Situation in which an officer is unexpectedly assaulted as the result of premeditated design by the perpetrator.
Ambush (entrapment/premeditation) – Situation in which an unsuspecting officer was targeted or lured into danger as the result of an offender’s conscious consideration and planning.
American Indian or Alaska Native (in context of a person’s race) – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment.
Amphetamines – A synthetic, addictive, mood-altering drug used as a stimulant (which means it speeds up the messages traveling between the brain and the body). They can be used illegally as a stimulant or legally as a prescription drug.
Animal bite – A bite to a human being made by an animal.
Animal cruelty – Intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly taking an action that mistreats or kills any animal without just cause, such as torturing, tormenting, mutilating, maiming, poisoning, or abandoning.
Animal disturbance – Complaints regarding, but not limited to, excessive barking or other animal noise, mistreatment of animals, and reports of stray, feral, or wild animals in the area.
Arrest situation – Situation in which an officer is arresting or attempting to arrest an offender either through verbal advisement or through physical contact, such as attempting to restrain, control, or handcuff the offender.
Asian (in context of a person’s race) – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodians, Chinese, Indians, Japanese, Koreans, Malaysians, Pakistanis, Filipinos, Thais, and Vietnamese.
Assault – The unlawful attack by one person upon another.
Assault with injury (non-fatal) – A physical attack on an officer in which the resulting injury is serious and requires more than usual first-aid treatment, for example, the injuries are more serious than abrasions, minor lacerations, or contusions.
Assisting another law enforcement officer – Situation in which an officer assists other law enforcement personnel or agencies in an emergency or nonemergency circumstance. Examples include officer-down circumstances; officers requiring emergency assistance; vehicular and foot pursuits; providing/deploying equipment such as traffic cones, flares, etc.; and other emergency and nonemergency circumstances.
Assisting/investigating vehicle crash – Situation in which an officer is thoroughly examining the facts surrounding a motor vehicle accident or is providing aid at the scene of a motor vehicle crash.
Assisting motorist – Helping, aiding, or providing assistance to the driver or passenger of an automobile.
Attempted “suicide by cop” – When a suicidal individual intentionally engages in life-threatening and criminal behavior with a lethal weapon—or what appears to be a lethal weapon—toward law enforcement officers or civilians that is intended to provoke officers to kill the suicidal individual in self-defense or to protect civilians. The designation of “attempted” means the individual was unsuccessful because he or she was not killed during the incident.
Attempting to restrain/control/handcuff – Attempting to prevent an individual from harming him or herself or others; keeping an individual under control or regulating his or her actions; or attempting to place handcuffs on an individual.
Avoiding hazardous situation/object – Situation in which an officer attempts to escape a situation or object that poses a level of potential threat or risk to life, health, property, or environment.
Barbiturates – Sedatives and sleep-inducing drugs derived from barbituric acid, a synthetic organic acid.
Barricaded situation – Situation in which a subject takes a position in a physical location, most often a structure or vehicle, that provides a means of spatial separation to assist them in avoiding apprehension from law enforcement, and the subject refuses police orders to exit.
Baton – A short, thick stick made of wood, rubber, plastic, or metal carried by law enforcement officers and used as a defensive weapon.
Black or African American (in context of a person’s race) – A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. An American of African and especially of black African descent.
Blunt instrument – Includes clubs, bricks, jack handles, tire irons, bottles (but not broken bottles), rocks, and any other objects used to club or strike victims.
Breach of the peace – Criminal offense of creating a public disturbance or engaging in disorderly conduct, particularly by making persistent, unnecessary, or distracting noise.
Burglary – The unlawful entry into a building or other structure with the intent to commit a felony or a theft.
Business check – Situation in which a law enforcement officer is inspecting the security of a place of business or commercial property.
Call for service – Assignments typically distributed to law enforcement officers that require their presence to resolve, correct, or assist with a particular situation.
Check on welfare of citizen – Visit conducted by a law enforcement officer to the residence of an individual for the purpose of assessing whether the individual poses a danger to him or herself or others due to a mental, behavioral, or physical condition.
Chemical/pepper spray – An aerosol chemical irritant carried by law enforcement officers and used as a defensive weapon. The most common control sprays (aka pepper spray or mace) are OC spray (oleoresin capsicum), CS spray (chlorobenzylidene malononitrile), CN tear gas (chloroacetophenone), or PAVA spray (pelargonic acid vanillylamide).
Citizen complaint – When a citizen brings to the attention of law enforcement any action considered to be contrary to law, proper procedure, good order, or in some other manner prejudicial to the citizen, the law enforcement agency, or to the community as a whole. Examples include animal bites, animal disturbances, verbal complaints of noncriminal violations, requests for checking on the welfare of a citizen, drug complaints, requests for business checks, and traffic complaints.
Civil disorder – A situation in which an officer is sent to control, disperse, or terminate a riot or mass disobedience.
Cleaning weapon (in context of the cause of an officer’s death or injury) – Situation in which an officer is in the process of cleaning his or her firearm and accidentally fires the weapon, resulting in the officer’s fatal injury.
COVID-19 Death – An officer’s death is attributed to the coronavirus disease 2019, abbreviated as COVID-19.
Cocaine (all forms except crack) – An illegal and addictive drug derived from coca or prepared synthetically, predominately used as an illegal stimulant.
Commercial (in context of the location of an incident or attack on an officer) – Place of business and its surrounding property, e.g., grounds, parking lot.
Conditional automation (in the context of a person operating a vehicle and injuring an officer with it or the officer being involved in a vehicle accident) – A vehicle system capability that enables a vehicle to independently manage most aspects of driving, including controlling speed, steering, and monitoring the environment under specific conditions. The system prompts the driver to intervene when it encounters a scenario it cannot navigate. The driver must be available to take over at any time.
Confirmed “suicide by cop” – When a suicidal individual intentionally engages in life-threatening and criminal behavior with a lethal weapon—or what appears to be a lethal weapon—toward law enforcement officers or civilians that is intended to provoke officers to kill the suicidal individual in self-defense or to protect civilians. The designation of “confirmed” means investigation firmly established the individual’s intent was to have an officer(s) justifiably kill him or her. In this situation, the individual is killed by law enforcement.
Crack/cocaine – A highly addictive crystalline form of cocaine resembling hard, brittle bits of plastic.
Crime against person – Criminal offense in which an offender uses or threatens to use force against an individual(s). Victims of crimes against persons are always individuals, e.g., murder, rape, assault.
Crime against property – Criminal offense in which an offender seeks to derive an unlawful benefit from or do damage to another’s property. The object of crimes against property is to obtain money, property, or some other benefit, e.g., robbery, bribery, burglary, etc.
Crime in progress – Situation in which an officer responds to a crime that is actively occurring and there is reason to believe the perpetrator is still at or near the scene of the crime. Examples include assaults, robberies, burglaries, larceny-theft situations, motor vehicle thefts, persons with firearms (no shots fired), reports of shootings/shots being fired, reports of tampering with a vehicle, and other crimes against persons or properties.
Data quality – Refers to the condition of a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables. The quality of such data is determined by comparing the actual data being provided to the data desired by a user group. The degree to which the end-user’s data need is satisfied determines the data quality.
Death due to duty-related health condition – Evidence indicates (or alludes to) a law enforcement officer’s cause of death resulted from a situation, circumstance, or exposure to a toxin, disease, virus, etc., while performing a line-of-duty activity or action. For example, an officer died of cancer, and it is concluded that the cancer was caused from toxins the officer was exposed to while performing official duties at the scene of a crime.
Disorder/disturbance – Any behavior that disturbs the public peace or decorum, scandalizes the community, or shocks the public sense of morality. This includes affray, breach of the peace, blasphemy, profanity, obscene language, disturbing the peace, and public nuisance, civil disorders, disturbances, domestic disturbances, and domestic violence situations.
Disturbance– A breach of the peace. Examples include, but are not limited to, curfew violations, disorderly persons, drinking in public, fights, fireworks violations, gambling in public space, persons under the influence, landlord/tenant disputes, loitering, loud noise of any type (excluding animal disturbance complaints), littering, nuisance complaints, prostitution offenses, trespassing or unwanted guests, vagrancy violations, and verbal altercations.
Domestic disturbance – A breach of the peace or crime against a person occurring within a family, families, or other relatives or members of the household. Examples include, but are not limited to, family disputes, family intimidations, family arguments, and assisting citizens with the removal of legally owned possessions at locations where prior domestic disturbances or other related offenses have occurred. (Family includes a current or former spouse, parent, or guardian of the victim; a person with whom the victim shares a child in common; a person who is or has been in a social relationship of a romantic or intimate nature with the victim; a person who is cohabiting with or has cohabited with the victim as a spouse, parent, or guardian; or a person who is or has been similarly situated to a spouse, parent, or guardian of the victim.)
Domestic terrorism – Terrorism that occurs primarily within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States.
Domestic violence – A circumstance where a subject uses, attempts, or threatens the use of a weapon, physical force, coercion, or intimidation against the victim or commits a crime against property owned by the victim. In this scenario, the subject has one or more of the following relationships with the victim:
- Current or former spouse, parent or guardian.
- Person with whom the victim shares a child.
- Person who is or has been in a social relationship of a romantic or intimate nature.
- Person who is cohabiting with or has cohabited with the victim as a spouse, parent, or guardian.
- Person who is or has been similarly situated to a spouse, parent, or guardian of the victim.
Driver assistance (in the context of a person operating a vehicle and injuring an officer with it or the officer being involved in a vehicle accident) – A vehicle system capability, which under certain conditions can control either the steering or the vehicle speed but not both simultaneously. The driver performs all other aspects of driving and has full responsibility for monitoring the road and taking over if the assistance system fails to act appropriately.
Drug complaint – Incident in which a citizen reports the use or presence of illegal drugs or drug paraphernalia. Examples include, but are not limited to, the possession, purchase, or sale of illegal drugs or drug paraphernalia. (EXCLUSIONS: The drug complaint category does not apply to situations in which a person is under the influence of, but not necessarily in possession of, illegal drugs. This type of incident should be classified as a disturbance under “Disorder/disturbance.” Also, this category does not include activities such as undercover operations, buy/bust operations, surveillance activities, etc. These types of activities should be classified appropriately under “Investigative/enforcement.”)
Drug-related matter – A drug-related activity, such as an undercover operation, buy/bust operation, surveillance activity, etc.
Electronic control weapon – A defensive weapon carried by law enforcement officers that produces and discharges electrical energy.
Emergency circumstance – A situation when it is reasonable to believe an officer or others could suffer serious bodily injury or death.
Encounter/assist an emotionally disturbed person – Situation in which an officer has encountered or is assisting an individual who is in a temporary disturbed state of mind due to a circumstance such as a high-stress situation, life-altering event, emotional occurrence, anger, sadness, grief, etc.
Escorting dignitary or funeral – Situation in which an officer is accompanying a person or a group of people considered to be important because of high rank or office for the purpose of providing protection or security. Also, a situation in which an officer is leading a number of people or vehicles moving forward in an orderly fashion, especially as part of a ceremony, festival, or burial.
Explosive device – A device that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide a violent release of energy. Examples include bombs, grenades, and stun grenades.
Felonious killing – Incident type in which the willful and intentional actions of an offender results in the fatal injury of an officer who is performing his or her official duties.
Firearm – A weapon that uses the force of an explosion of gunpowder to propel a projectile, e.g., all handguns, rifles, shotguns, and other such devices. Notable exceptions to this category are air, BB, pellet, or gas-powered guns, which should be identified under the category titled “Other” weapon.
Foot pursuit – Situation in which an officer is on foot and chasing an individual for a known, suspected, or unknown offense.
Full automation (in the context of a person operating a vehicle and injuring an officer with it or the officer being involved in a vehicle accident) – A vehicle system capability also known as a driverless vehicle. It can operate on any road and in any conditions a human driver could negotiate. A driver is involved only when reaching a destination.
Ghost/subdued vehicle – A police vehicle that has a reflective law enforcement decal on the exterior of the car that nearly matches the vehicle’s paint, making it very discreet during the day; however, the decal clearly reflects light at night, easily identifying the vehicle as belonging to law enforcement.
Government (in context of the location of an incident or attack on an officer) – Buildings and property, such as a parking lot owned by a government.
Handling person with mental illness – Situation in which an officer is dealing with a person who is known or suspected to be suffering from a mental illness that impairs judgment, behavior, perceptions of reality, or the ability to cope with the ordinary demands of life. Examples include, but are not limited to, calls concerning mental patients, suicidal persons, service of commitment orders, or calls to investigate a subject’s activities that cause suspicion that he or she is suffering from a mental illness.
Hashish/hash oil – An extract of the cannabis plant containing concentrations of the psychoactive resins.
Heroin – A highly-addictive analgesic drug derived from morphine, often used illicitly as a narcotic producing euphoria.
High automation (in the context of a person operating a vehicle and injuring an officer with it or the officer being involved in a vehicle accident) – A vehicle system capability in which a vehicle can operate without human input or oversight but only under select conditions defined by factors such as road type or geographic area. In a shared vehicle restricted to a defined area, there may not be any driver involvement; however, the driver might manage all driving duties on surface streets, then become a passenger as the vehicle enters a highway.
High-risk traffic stop – When an officer(s) performs a vehicle stop considered to be especially hazardous in nature.
Hispanic or Latino (in context of a person’s ethnicity) – A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. The term “Spanish origin” can be used in addition to “Hispanic or Latino.”
Homicide – The willful, nonnegligent killing of one human being by another.
Hostage situation – Situation in which a subject has seized or detained an individual or a group of people and is threatening to kill, injure, or continue to detain them in order to compel a third person or law enforcement to take some action.
Incident – An occurrence of an event or situation that is a separate unit of experience. Incidents should be separated by distance and time of occurrence.
International terrorism – Terrorism that occurs primarily outside the territorial jurisdiction of the United States or that transcends national boundaries by the means in which it is carried out, the people it is intended to intimidate, or the place where the perpetrators operate to seek asylum.
Investigative activity – An activity in which an officer makes official inquiries relating to perpetrators and/or prior criminal offenses. Examples include, but are not limited to, obtaining follow-up information or additional information relating to any crime (excluding drug offense complaints) or interviewing a citizen relating to any criminal matter (excluding drug offenses). EXCLUSIONS: Assignments to investigate complaints related to the manufacturing, buying, selling, or possession of illegal drugs; the service of search warrants, which should be reported as tactical situations; and calls to investigate suspicious persons or circumstances.
Investigative/detective – A type of assignment in which an officer is mainly researching and solving crimes.
Investigative/enforcement – Situation in which an officer is researching a circumstance or crime and/or generally maintaining public peace and order, protecting both life and property from accidental or willful injury, and preventing and detecting crimes. Examples include performing investigative activities; investigating suspicious persons or circumstances; investigating possible DUI/DWI suspects; performing traffic stops; investigating motor vehicle crashes; investigating or enforcing incidents involving wanted persons, persons with a mental illness, or drug-related matters; performing in tactical or undercover capacities; and surveillance activities.
Knife – An instrument composed of a metal blade fitted with a handle that may be used as a cutting or stabbing instrument.
Larceny-theft – The unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession or constructive possession of another.
Law enforcement agency – Any organized and governmental agency authorized to enforce criminal law, arrest violators, and keep public order of the United States, any state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United States, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any territory or possession of the United States, or any unit of local investigation government, department, agency, or instrumentality of any of the above mentioned.
Law enforcement capacity – Acting in the duty, position, or role of a law enforcement officer.
Law enforcement officer – All federal, state, county, local, and tribal law enforcement officers (such as federal marshals and special agents, state police and highway patrol, sheriffs and deputies, county and municipal police officers and constables, city police officers, and tribal police officers) who are sworn by their respective authorities to uphold the law and to safeguard the rights, lives, and property of individuals. They must have statutory arrest powers and be members of a law enforcement agency organized and funded for the purposes of keeping order, for preventing and detecting crimes, and for apprehending those responsible.
Less-lethal weapon – (aka non-lethal weapons, less-than-lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, pain-inducing weapons) Device designed or converted to expel or propel less lethal ammunition by any action, mechanism, or process for the purpose of incapacitating, immobilizing, or stunning a human being through the infliction of any less than lethal impairment of physical condition, function, or senses, including physical pain or discomfort. Examples of less-lethal weapons are beanbag rounds or rubberized rounds.
Line of duty – Any action that an officer whose primary responsibilities are crime control, investigation, and enforcement of the criminal law and keeping public order is obligated and authorized by law to perform while carrying out his or her job functions. The officer is compensated by the law enforcement agency he or she is employed by.
Line-of-duty death or assault –An officer who is killed or assaulted while on duty and while acting in an official capacity. Also, an officer who is killed or assaulted while officially off duty but, because of his or her training in responding to certain situations, acts in his or her official capacity during an incident or event, such as a robbery in progress or a traffic accident.
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) – A hallucinogenic drug, commonly known as “acid,” that typically alters an individual’s perception, thoughts, and feelings. It is manufactured from a lysergic acid compound found in the ergot fungus that grows on rye and other grains.
Maintaining custody of prisoner – Sustaining control of persons who are in the custodial care of a law enforcement agency after an arrest and/or while dealing with persons who are being detained in accordance with the law.
Marijuana – The dried leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds of the Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica plant. The plant contains the mind-altering chemical Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other similar compounds.
Mass casualty incident – Any event or occurrence in which a large number of people are killed. Often, during such events, emergency medical service resources, such as personnel and equipment, are overwhelmed by the number and severity of casualties.
Medical emergency – The sudden onset of a condition manifesting itself by acute symptoms of sufficient severity (including severe pain) that the absence of immediate medical attention could reasonably be expected to result in placing the patient’s health in serious jeopardy, serious impairment to bodily functions, or serious dysfunction of any bodily organ or part.
Methamphetamine – A synthetic drug with more rapid and lasting effects than an amphetamine, used legally as a prescription drug to treat narcolepsy and maintain blood pressure and illegally as a stimulant.
Morphine – An analgesic and narcotic drug obtained from opium and used medicinally to relieve pain. As a narcotic drug, morphine is often abused for its pleasurable effects.
Motor vehicle – An automotive vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine, not operated on rails.
Motor vehicle crash – Occurs when an automobile strikes or collides with another vehicle, a stationary object, a pedestrian, an animal, road debris, etc. Motor vehicle crashes often result in injury, death, and/or property damage.
Motor vehicle theft – The theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle, whether locked or unlocked.
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (in context of a person’s race) – An individual having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands, e.g., individuals who are Carolinian, Fijian, Kosraean, Melanesian, Micronesian, Northern Mariana Islander, Palauan, Papua New Guinean, Ponapean (Pohnpelan), Polynesian, Solomon Islander, Tahitian, Tarawa Islander, Tokelauan, Tongan, Trukese (Chuukese), and Yapese. (NOTE: The term “Native Hawaiian” does not include individuals who are native to the state of Hawaii simply by virtue of being born there.)
No automation (in the context of a person operating a vehicle and injuring an officer with it or the officer being involved in a vehicle accident) – A vehicle that is not equipped with an automatic operating system. The driver steers, brakes, accelerates, and negotiates traffic.
Noncountable death – Any death of an officer that does not meet the criteria of the Uniform Crime Reporting LEOKA Program. See Officer Criteria[P(1] for more details.
Nonemergency circumstance – Circumstance in which there is no reason to believe an officer or others are in immediate danger of serious bodily injury or death.
Nonlaw enforcement capacity – Acting in the duty, position, or role of anyone other than a law enforcement officer.
Nonrange training – Learning from a teacher or self-developing any skills or knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. This training does not occur on a shooting range and is not related to tactical training.
Off duty but acting in an official capacity – An officer who is not scheduled to be working at the time of the incident but is present and performing duties that are sanctioned by, recognized by, or derived from law enforcement authority.
Officer down (requiring emergency assistance) – An officer has been injured and requires medical assistance.
Officer requiring emergency assistance (not pursuit) – An officer needs assistance from other officers in an emergency circumstance, not including the pursuit of an individual.
Official contact – Physical, verbal, or some other means of communication used in a law enforcement capacity.
One-officer patrol – An assignment involving one officer on duty in an agency’s marked patrol vehicle with no accompanying partner.
Opium/opiate – A highly-addictive narcotic drug acquired from the dried latex from the opium poppy seed pod. It is a reddish-brown, heavy-scented drug used as a narcotic and in medicine as an analgesic. Heroin is derived from the morphine alkaloid found in opium.
Other crime against person – A crime against a person, and the crime does not fit into other, more specific categories.
Other crime against property – A crime against property, and the crime does not fit into other, more specific categories.
Other cutting instrument – A sharp object other than a knife, including a razor, hatchet, ax, cleaver, scissors, glass, broken bottle, ice pick, or anything that can be used to slash or stab a victim.
Other emergency circumstance – Situation in which an officer assists other law enforcement personnel/agencies in an emergency circumstance that does not fit into other, more specific categories.
Other nonemergency circumstance – Situation in which an officer assists other law enforcement personnel/agencies in a nonemergency circumstance in order to provide additional law enforcement presence at a scene for precautionary measure. Includes any nonemergency circumstance that does not fit into other, more specific categories.
Out of service – An officer is not available for a call, e.g., dining, off duty, attending to personal matters.
Overseeing work zone – Situation in which an officer is present at a roadway area that is under construction or having maintenance or utility work performed.
Overtime/extra duty activity – An activity performed by an officer during an overtime shift (beyond a regularly assigned work shift) or an extra duty activity, such as escorting a funeral procession.
Partial automation (in the context of a person operating a vehicle and injuring an officer with it or the officer being involved in a vehicle accident) – A vehicle system capability in which a vehicle can steer, accelerate, and brake in certain circumstances. Tactical maneuvers such as responding to traffic signals or changing lanes largely fall to the driver, as does scanning for hazards. The driver may have to keep a hand on the wheel as a proxy for paying attention.
Patrol – An assignment in which an officer passes along a road, beat, etc., or around or through a specified area in order to maintain order and security.
Performing traffic stop – Situation in which an officer is temporarily detaining the driver of a vehicle for a traffic violation or a high-risk stop.
Personal weapons – A person’s hands, arms, feet, fists, or teeth used as a weapon.
Person with firearm (no shots fired) – A person pointing, displaying, or brandishing a firearm without firing it.
Phencyclidine (PCP) – A dissociative anesthetic. Its sedative and anesthetic effects are trance-like, causing users to feel detached from their environment or out of their bodies.
Possible DUI/DWI suspect operating a vehicle (driving under the influence [DUI]/driving while intoxicated [DWI]) – Circumstances leading an officer to suspect an individual is operating a motor vehicle while impaired by alcohol (with a blood alcohol content above the legal limit set by statute) and/or by other legal or illegal substance(s).
Prisoner transport – Moving detainees from one location to another in a vehicle.
Providing/deploying equipment – Placing spike strips, traffic cones, flares, etc., in a roadway in strategic locations for a particular purpose, for example, to stop a fleeing motorist, to warn or direct motorists, etc.
Public space (in context of the location of an incident or attack on an officer) – Any area used by the populace, such as a highway, road, alley, sidewalk, lake, river, or park. The term includes roads, alleys, sidewalks, etc., which are in residential areas but are considered public property.
Published – Information made available to the general public.
Pursuit – Situation in which an officer searches for an individual either on foot or in a vehicle.
Range training – Learning from a teacher or self-developing shooting skills at a specialized facility designed for firearms practice, qualifications, or training.
Recovery operation – Action taken by an officer(s) who is searching for, locating, identifying, or retrieving someone or something during a critical time.
Reported – When an agency has submitted data to the FBI Uniform Crime Reporting Program.
Reporting agencies – Agencies that submit data to the FBI Uniform Crime Reporting Program.
Report of crime – When a person gives information to law enforcement indicating the law may have been broken at an earlier or unknown date and/or time, and an officer(s) responds to investigate the claim. In these situations, there are no indications the perpetrator is at or near the scene of the crime. Examples include homicides, assaults, robberies, burglaries, larceny-theft situations, motor vehicle thefts, persons with firearms (no shots fired), reports of shootings/shots fired, tampering with vehicle reports, and other crimes against persons or properties.
Rescue operation – Actions undertaken by an officer who is attempting to save a life or prevent an injury during an incident or dangerous situation.
Rescue/recovery – Situation in which an officer attempts (successfully or unsuccessfully) to save or free someone from danger or captivity. Or a situation in which an officer attempts (successfully or unsuccessfully) to regain or restore someone or something lost or stolen.
Residential (in context of the location of an incident or attack on an officer) – Place of dwelling that includes surrounding private property, e.g., yard, private driveway, etc. Residential locations include all types of dwellings, such as single-family homes, duplexes, apartment complexes, condominiums, or any other residential sites that are privately owned. Public property in residential areas, such as parks, ponds, sidewalks, and roads, are considered public space.
Respond to alarm – Situation in which an officer responds to an electronic, audible, or silent warning system of any type. Examples include, but are not limited to, any hold-up or burglar alarm, including those installed at banks, government buildings, private or commercial structures, or motor vehicles.
Responding to emergency – Situation in which an officer is en route to a serious, unexpected, and often dangerous situation requiring immediate action.
Responding to nonemergency – Situation in which an officer is en route to a situation that is not expected to be dangerous or require immediate action.
Robbery – Taking, or attempting to take, anything of value under confrontational circumstances from the control, custody, or care of another person by force, threat of force, violence, and/or by putting the victim in fear of immediate harm.
Self-initiated activity – An occurrence when a law enforcement officer perceives a problem and takes action.
Serious bodily injury – Injuries that require medical intervention, for example, broken bones, internal injuries, and wounds that require stitches. Injuries that are not considered serious in nature include abrasions, minor lacerations, or contusions that only require first-aid treatment.
Serving/attempting to serve arrest warrant – Situation in which an officer is executing or attempting to execute a judge’s order to arrest and bring to jail a person charged with a crime.
Serving/attempting to serve court order – Situation in which an officer is serving or attempting to serve an order issued from a competent court that requires a party to do, or abstain from doing, a specified act.
Serving/attempting to serve search warrant – Situation in which an officer is serving or attempting to serve a warrant issued by a competent authority to authorize law enforcement officers to conduct a search of a location or vehicle for evidence of a crime, even without the occupant’s consent, and to confiscate any evidence found.
Shooting/shots being fired – The act or process of discharging a projectile from a firearm. (NOTE: Does not include active-shooter situations.)
Shooting/shots fired – The act or process in which a projectile was discharged from a firearm. (NOTE: Does not include active-shooter situations.)
Special assignment – A duty that differs from a law enforcement officer’s normal task.
Suicide by cop – an incident in which a suicidal individual intentionally engages in life-threatening and criminal behavior with a lethal weapon or what appears to be a lethal weapon toward law enforcement officers or civilians to specifically provoke officers to justifiably shoot the suicidal individual in self-defense or to protect civilians.
Surveillance activity – The act of an officer watching a person believed to be involved with criminal activity or closely observing a place where criminals are believed to gather.
Suspected suicide by cop – An incident in which law enforcement suspects—but has not proven or firmly established—that a suicidal individual intentionally engaged in life-threatening and criminal behavior with a lethal weapon or what appeared to be a lethal weapon toward law enforcement officers or civilians to specifically provoke officers to justifiably shoot the suicidal individual in self-defense or to protect civilians.
Suspicious package – Any container that is out of place and left unattended that cannot be accounted for, or any item suspected of being an explosive device or a potential threat. Examples of suspicious packages include, but are not limited to, letters, packages, parcels, and unattended luggage or backpacks.
Suspicious person/circumstance – An activity in which an officer investigates an unusual occurrence, an out-of-the-ordinary condition, or a report of a suspicious person or circumstance.
Synthetic cathinones – Human-made stimulants chemically related to cathinone; a substance found in the khat plant. More commonly known as “bath salts.”
Tactical assignment – A uniformed task where an officer is strategically deployed in order to achieve a specific goal or objective. These are typically high-risk assignments.
Tactical situation – Circumstances in which an officer is strategically deployed in order to achieve a specific goal or objective. Examples include, but are not limited to, serving search warrants, hostage situations, dealing with barricaded offenders, serving search warrants for drug violations, serving an arrest warrant on a known armed felon, and handling any other situations that could be deemed high-risk.
Tactical training – Learning from a teacher or self-developing skills and knowledge that relate to tactical situations, such as hostage situations, barricaded offenders, or any other situations that could be deemed high-risk.
Take-down lights – High-intensity lights mounted on a law enforcement vehicle designed to provide illumination in low light situations.
Tampering with vehicle – Willfully breaking into, tampering with, or removing any part, parts, or contents of any vehicle, aircraft, boat, or vessel for the purpose of damaging, defacing or destroying the vehicle, aircraft, boat or vessel or temporarily or permanently preventing its useful operation.
Terrorism – The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.
Traffic complaint – A traffic-related report that law enforcement responds to the location to investigate.
Traffic control – Situation in which an officer is directing vehicular and pedestrian traffic around a construction zone, accident, or other road disruption, thus ensuring the safety of emergency response teams, construction workers, and the general public.
Traffic enforcement – Situation in which an officer is compelling observance of or compliance with a law, rule, or obligation of federal, state, and local traffic laws to ensure the safety of road users.
Traffic violation stop – A vehicle stop made by an officer due to a motorist’s violation of traffic rules and regulations.
Training – Learning from a teacher or self-developing any skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies.
Training exercise – Activity involving an officer’s participation in a course in order to develop or hone any skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies.
Trespassing – A person(s) unlawfully entering land, a dwelling, or other real property.
Two-officer patrol – An assignment involving two officers on duty in an agency’s marked patrol vehicle.
Undercover – A nonuniformed assignment in which an officer requires anonymity or blending into a group or environment to gather evidence or intelligence. The disclosure of the officer’s identity would pose a significant safety risk.
Undercover situation – Situation in which an officer is gathering evidence or intelligence without disclosing his or her role as a law enforcement officer.
Unprovoked attack – An attack on an officer not prompted by official contact at the time of the incident between the officer and the offender.
Updated – A more recent, and usually improved, form of something.
Vehicle – An automotive vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine, not operated on rails.
Vehicular pursuit – Situation when an officer is driving a vehicle and engages in pursuing an individual for a known, suspected, or unknown offense.
Verbal advisement only – A law enforcement officer uses vocal communication to direct a suspect to perform a particular action.
Verbal complaint of noncriminal violation – Vocal communication to law enforcement of incidents that do not involve crimes. Examples include, but are not limited to:
- assisting citizens accidentally locked out of their residence or vehicle.
- dead animals or other animal complaints that do not involve a crime.
- found property, lost property, and attempts to locate property.
- missing persons, runaways, and attempts to locate persons.
- natural deaths, including assignments to investigate odors thought to be associated with natural deaths.
- taking reports (but not the transportation) of sick persons admitted to healthcare, detoxification, or mental health facilities.
Wanted person – An individual who is known or suspected to be the subject of an outstanding arrest warrant.
White (in context of a person’s race) – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.
9/11 Death – Any death resulting from a health condition believed to have been contracted while working at sites affected by the terrorist attacks in America on September 11, 2001. These deaths include victim officers who responded to the scenes, worked rescue and recovery details, etc. (NOTE: The 72 victim officers who died during the events of 9/11 are included in the “Feloniously Killed” statistical data.)