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Location Type

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Agencies may specify the location of an offense within a hate crime incident as 1 of 46 location designations. However, not all reporting agencies have made the programming changes to allow the relatively new location designations; therefore, the data collected to date are not yet representative of all location designations. Also, the location type cyberspace is collected in the National Incident-Based Reporting System only. The location designations of the hate crime incidents reported in 2019 (based on Table 10) were:

  • 24.6 percent of hate crime incidents happened in or near residences/homes.
  • 18.2 percent occurred on highways/roads/alleys/streets/sidewalks.
  • 9.6 percent took place at schools/colleges (based on 3 designations).
  • 4.7 percent happened in parking/drop lots/garages.
  • 4.4 percent occurred in churches/synagogues/temples/mosques.
  • 2.9 percent took place in restaurants.
  • 2.7 percent happened at parks/playgrounds.
  • 2.2 percent occurred in commercial office buildings.
  • 1.8 percent took place in government/public buildings.
  • 1.7 percent happened in convenience stores.
  • 1.7 percent occurred in bars/nightclubs.
  • 1.5 percent took place in air/bus/train terminals.
  • 1.4 percent happened in department/discount stores.
  • 1.4 percent occurred in grocery/supermarkets.
  • 1.3 percent took place in drug stores/doctors’ offices/hospitals.
  • 1.2 percent happened in jails/prisons/penitentiaries/corrections facilities.
  • 1.0 percent occurred in service/gas stations.
  • 6.4 percent of hate crimes took place in the remaining specified location categories or in multiple locations.
  • 11.2 percent happened in other/unknown locations.

Location by bias motivation

Race/ethnicity/ancestry bias

Law enforcement reported 3,963 hate crime incidents motivated by race/ethnicity/ancestry bias in 2019. Of these:

  • 25.3 percent occurred in or near residences/homes.
  • 20.5 percent took place on highways/roads/alleys/streets/sidewalks.
  • 8.9 percent happened at schools/colleges (based on 3 designations).
  • 6.2 percent occurred in parking/drop lots/garages.
  • 3.5 percent took place in restaurants.
  • 2.5 percent happened at parks/playgrounds.
  • 2.3 percent occurred in commercial/office buildings.
  • 2.2 percent took place in government/public buildings.
  • 2.1 percent happened at convenience stores.
  • 1.7 percent occurred at air/bus/train terminals.
  • 1.7 percent took place at department/discount stores.
  • 1.7 percent happened in bars/nightclubs.
  • 1.6 percent occurred in grocery/supermarkets.
  • 1.6 percent took place in jails/prisons/penitentiaries/corrections facilities.
  • 1.4 percent happened in drug stores/doctors’ offices/hospitals.
  • 1.3 percent occurred at service/gas stations.
  • 7.6 percent took place in the remaining specified location categories or in multiple locations.
  • 7.8 percent happened in other/unknown locations.

Religious bias

Of the 1,521 reported hate crime incidents that occurred due to a religious bias:

  • 17.9 percent occurred in or near residences/homes.
  • 16.8 percent took place in churches/synagogues/temples/mosques.
  • 11.7 percent happened at schools/colleges (based on 3 designations).
  • 9.3 percent occurred on highways/roads/alleys/streets/sidewalks.
  • 3.3 percent took place at parks/playgrounds.
  • 1.8 percent happened in commercial office buildings.
  • 1.8 percent occurred in parking/drop lots/garages.
  • 1.6 percent took place in government/public buildings.
  • 1.2 percent happened in fields/woods.
  • 1.1 percent occurred in convenience stores.
  • 1.0 percent took place in drug stores/doctor’s offices/hospitals.
  • 1.0 percent happened in restaurants.
  • 1.0 percent occurred in specialty stores (TV, fur, etc.)
  • 7.2 percent took place in the remaining specified location categories.
  • 23.4 percent happened in other/unknown locations.

Sexual-orientation bias

Law enforcement reported that bias motivation against a particular sexual orientation prompted 1,195 hate crime incidents in 2019. Of these:

  • 28.1 percent occurred in or near residences/homes.
  • 22.4 percent took place on highways/roads/alleys/streets/sidewalks.
  • 7.3 percent happened at schools/colleges (based on 3 designations).
  • 4.4 percent occurred in parking/drop lots/garages.
  • 3.8 percent took place in restaurants.
  • 3.4 percent happened in bars/nightclubs.
  • 2.2 percent occurred at parks/playgrounds.
  • 2.2 percent took place in commercial office buildings.
  • 1.9 percent happened in air/bus/train terminals.
  • 1.6 percent occurred in convenience stores.
  • 1.6 percent took place in churches/synagogues/temples/mosques.
  • 1.5 percent happened in jails/prisons/penitentiaries/corrections facilities.
  • 1.3 percent occurred in government/public buildings.
  • 1.0 percent took place in department/discount stores.
  • 8.3 percent happened in the remaining specified location categories or in multiple locations.
  • 9.1 percent occurred in other/unknown locations.

Gender identity bias

During 2019, 198 hate crimes motivated by gender identity bias were reported. Of these:

  • 25.8 percent took place at residences/homes.
  • 25.3 percent happened on highways/roads/alleys/streets/sidewalks.
  • 6.1 percent occurred at schools/colleges (based on 3 designations).
  • 3.5 percent took place in grocery/supermarkets.
  • 3.0 percent happened in parking/drop lots/garages.
  • 3.0 percent occurred in commercial office buildings.
  • 2.5 percent took place in restaurants.
  • 2.0 percent happened in convenience stores.
  • 2.0 percent occurred in drug stores/doctor’s offices/hospitals.
  • 1.5 percent took place in department/discount stores.
  • 1.5 percent happened at parks/playgrounds.
  • 1.5 percent occurred at shelters—mission/homeless.
  • 1.5 percent took place in government/public buildings.
  • 1.5 percent happened in jails/prisons/penitentiaries/corrections facilities.
  • 1.5 percent occurred in specialty stores (TV, fur, etc.)
  • 7.6 percent took place in the remaining specified location categories.
  • 10.1 percent happened at other/unknown locations.

Disability bias

Bias against individuals with a disability (either physical or mental) motivated 157 reported hate crime incidents in 2019. Of these:

  • 48.4 percent occurred in or near residences/homes.
  • 14.6 percent took place on highways/roads/alleys/streets/sidewalks.
  • 9.6 percent happened in schools/colleges (based on 3 designations).
  • 4.5 percent occurred in grocery/supermarkets.
  • 2.5 percent took place in parking/drop lots/garages.
  • 2.5 percent happened in drug stores/doctor’s offices/hospitals.
  • 1.9 percent occurred in restaurants.
  • 1.9 percent took place in service/gas stations.
  • 1.3 percent happened in convenience stores.
  • 1.3 percent occurred in government/public buildings.
  • 1.3 percent took place in liquor stores.
  • 5.7 percent happened in the remaining specified location categories or in multiple locations.
  • 4.5 percent occurred in other/unknown locations.

Gender bias

Law enforcement reported 69 gender bias hate crimes in 2019. Of these:

  • 29 took place at residences/homes.
  • 7 happened at schools/colleges (based on 3 designations).
  • 6 occurred on highways/roads/alleys/streets/sidewalks.
  • 6 took place in drug stores/doctor’s offices/hospitals.
  • 2 happened in parking/drop lots/garages.
  • 2 occurred in department/discount stores.
  • 2 took place in air/bus/train terminals.
  • 2 happened in jails/prisons/penitentiaries/corrections facilities.
  • 5 occurred in the remaining specified locations.
  • 8 took place in other/unknown locations.

Multiple-bias incidents

In 2019, law enforcement agencies reported 211 multiple-bias hate crime incidents. Of these:

  • 24.2 percent happened in schools/colleges (based on 3 designations).
  • 15.2 percent occurred in or near residences/homes.
  • 12.3 percent took place on highways/roads/alleys/streets/sidewalks.
  • 8.5 percent happened at parks/playgrounds.
  • 6.6 percent occurred in churches/synagogues/temples/mosques.
  • 3.8 percent took place in restaurants.
  • 3.3 percent happened in commercial office buildings.
  • 2.8 percent occurred in air/bus/train terminals.
  • 2.4 percent took place in parking/drop lot/garages.
  • 1.4 percent happened in bars/nightclubs.
  • 1.4 percent occurred in convenience stores.
  • 1.4 percent took place in department/discount stores.
  • 1.4 percent happened in fields/woods.
  • 1.4 percent occurred at shopping malls.
  • 8.5 percent took place in the remaining specified location categories.
  • 5.2 percent were reported in the other/unknown location category.