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Incidents and Offenses

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The Uniform Crime Reporting Program collects data about both single-bias and multiple-bias hate crimes. For each offense type reported, law enforcement must indicate at least one bias motivation. A single-bias incident is defined as an incident in which one or more offense types are motivated by the same bias. As of 2013, a multiple-bias incident is defined as an incident in which one or more offense types are motivated by two or more biases.

Important note about rape

In 2013, the FBI UCR Program initiated the collection of rape data under a revised definition and removed the term “forcible” from the offense name. The UCR Program now defines rape as follows:

  • Rape (revised): Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim. This includes the offenses of Rape, Sodomy, and Sexual Assault with an Object.
  • Rape (legacy): The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will.

The offenses of fondling, incest, and statutory rape are included in the Crimes Against Persons, Other category.

The revised and legacy rape totals are provided in Tables 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 of Hate Crime Statistics, 2013. (See the Methodology for more information about this program change as well as others.)

Overview

  • In 2013, 1,826 law enforcement agencies reported 5,928 hate crime incidents involving 6,933 offenses.
  • There were 5,922 single-bias incidents that involved 6,921 offenses, 7,230 victims, and 5,808 known offenders.
  • The 6 multiple-bias incidents reported in 2013 involved 12 offenses, 12 victims, and 6 offenders. (See Tables 1 and 12.)

Single-bias incidents

Analysis of the 5,922 single-bias incidents reported in 2013 revealed that:

  • 48.5 percent were racially motivated.
  • 20.8 percent resulted from sexual-orientation bias.
  • 17.4 percent were motivated by religious bias.
  • 11.1 percent stemmed from ethnicity bias.
  • 1.4 percent were prompted by disability bias.
  • 0.5 percent (31 incidents) were motivated by gender-identity bias.
  • 0.3 percent (18 incidents) resulted from gender bias. (Based on Table 1.)

Offenses by bias motivation within incidents

Of the 6,921 single-bias hate crime offenses reported in the above incidents:

  • 49.2 percent stemmed from racial bias.
  • 20.3 percent were motivated by sexual-orientation bias.
  • 16.8 percent resulted from religious bias.
  • 11.5 percent were prompted by ethnicity bias.
  • 1.3 percent resulted from bias against disabilities.
  • 0.5 percent (33 offenses) stemmed from gender-identity bias.
  • 0.4 percent (30 offenses) were prompted by gender bias. (Based on Table 1.)

Racial bias

In 2013, law enforcement agencies reported that 3,407 single-bias hate crime offenses were racially motivated. Of these offenses:

  • 66.4 percent were motivated by anti-Black or African American bias.
  • 21.4 percent stemmed from anti-White bias.
  • 4.6 percent resulted from anti-Asian bias.
  • 4.3 percent were motivated by anti-American Indian or Alaska Native bias.
  • 3.2 percent were a result of bias against groups of individuals consisting of more than one race (anti-multiple races, group).
  • 0.1 percent (3 offenses) were motivated by bias of anti-Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. (Based on Table 1.)

Sexual-orientation bias

In 2013, law enforcement agencies reported 1,402 hate crime offenses based on sexual-orientation bias. Of these offenses:

  • 60.6 percent were classified as anti-gay (male) bias.
  • 22.6 percent were prompted by an anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (mixed group) bias.
  • 13.2 percent were classified as anti-lesbian bias.
  • 1.9 percent were classified as anti-bisexual bias.
  • 1.7 percent were the result of an anti-heterosexual bias. (Based on Table 1.)

Religious bias

Hate crimes motivated by religious bias accounted for 1,163 offenses reported by law enforcement. A breakdown of the bias motivation of religious-biased offenses showed:

  • 59.2 percent were anti-Jewish.
  • 14.2 percent were anti-Islamic (Muslim).
  • 6.4 percent were anti-Catholic.
  • 4.4 percent were anti-multiple religions, group.
  • 3.6 percent were anti-Protestant.
  • 0.6 percent (7 offenses) were anti-Atheism/Agnosticism/etc.
  • 11.6 percent were anti-other (unspecified) religion. (Based on Table 1.)

Ethnicity bias

Of the single-bias incidents, 794 offenses were committed based on the offenders’ bias toward the perceived ethnicity of the victim. Of these offenses:

  • 52.6 percent were anti-Hispanic or Latino bias.
  • 47.4 percent were anti-Not Hispanic or Latino bias. (Based on Table 1.)

Note, the term anti-not Hispanic or Latino does not imply the victim was targeted because he/she was not of Hispanic origin, but it refers to other or unspecified ethnic biases that are not Hispanic or Latino. 

Disability bias

There were 92 reported hate crime offenses committed based on disability bias. Of these:

  • 69 offenses were classified as anti-mental disability.
  • 23 offenses were reported as anti-physical disability. (See Table 1.)

Gender-identity bias

Of the single-bias incidents, 33 offenses were a result of gender-identity bias. Of these:

  • 25 were anti-transgender.
  • 8 were anti-gender non-conforming. (See Table 1.)

Gender bias

There were 30 offenses of gender bias reported in 2013. Of these:

  • 25 were anti-female.
  • 5 were anti-male. (See Table 1.)

By offense types

Of the 6,933 reported hate crime offenses in 2013:

  • 27.8 percent were intimidation.
  • 25.7 percent were destruction/damage/vandalism.
  • 24.8 percent were simple assault.
  • 10.6 percent were aggravated assault.
  • The remaining offenses included additional crimes against persons and property. (Based on Table 2.)

Offenses by crime category

Among the 6,933 hate crime offenses reported:

  • 63.9 percent were crimes against persons.
  • 35.0 percent were crimes against property.
  • The remaining offenses were crimes against society. (Based on Table 2.) (See Data Collection in Methodology.)

Crimes against persons

Law enforcement reported 4,430 hate crime offenses as crimes against persons. By offense type:

  • 43.5 percent were intimidation.
  • 38.8 percent were simple assault.
  • 16.6 percent were aggravated assault.
  • 0.6 percent consisted of 5 murders and 21 rapes (15 rapes were submitted under the UCR Program’s revised definition of rape, and 6 were submitted under the legacy definition of rape). (See Methodology for more details about changes in the definition of rape in the UCR Program.)
  • 0.6 percent involved the offense category other, which is collected only in the National Incident-Based Reporting System. (Based on Table 2.)

Crimes against property

  • The majority of the 2,424 hate crime offenses that were crimes against property (73.6 percent) were acts of destruction/damage/vandalism.
  • The remaining 26.4 percent of crimes against property consisted of robbery, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, arson, and other crimes. (Based on Table 2.)

Crimes against society

There were 79 offenses defined as crimes against society (e.g., drug or narcotic offenses or prostitution). (See Table 2.)

By victim type

When considering the type of victims among the reported 6,933 hate crime offenses:

  • 82.0 percent were directed at individuals.
  • 4.4 percent were against businesses or financial institutions.
  • 2.6 percent were against government.
  • 2.6 percent were against religious organizations.
  • 1.1 percent were against society/public.
  • The remaining 7.3 percent were directed at other/unknown/multiple victim types. (Based on Table 6.)