Methodology

UCR Programs gather crime information from the law enforcement agencies under their domain and forward the data to the FBI. Forty-eight states in the nation have their own UCR Programs that streamline the collection of UCR data from local law enforcement agencies, ensure consistency and comparability of data, and provide a higher quality of service to the law enforcement community. Establishment of a UCR Program is not limited to state governments. Territorial, tribal, and federal agencies may also institute UCR Programs. Agencies in states without a program, i.e., direct contributors, submit their crime statistics directly to the FBI, which provides continuous guidance and support to those participating agencies.

Criteria for UCR Programs

The following are the standards under which a UCR Program must operate:

  • A UCR Program must conform to the FBI UCR Program’s submission standards, definitions, specifications, and required deadlines.
  • A UCR Program must establish data integrity procedures and have personnel assigned to assist contributing agencies in quality assurance practices and crime reporting procedures. Data integrity procedures should include crime trend assessments, offense classification verification, and technical specification validation.
  • A UCR Program’s submissions must cover more than 50 percent of the law enforcement agencies within its established reporting domain and be willing to cover any and all UCR-contributing agencies that wish to use the UCR Program from within its domain. (An agency wishing to become a UCR Program must be willing to report for all of the agencies within the state.)
  • A UCR Program must furnish the FBI UCR Program with all of the UCR data collected by the law enforcement agencies within its domain.

These requirements do not prohibit the state from gathering other statistical data beyond the national collection.

Data completeness and quality

In order to fulfill its responsibilities in connection with the UCR Program, the FBI edits and reviews individual agency reports for both completeness and quality. Members of the national program’s staff contact the state UCR Program in connection with crime-reporting matters and, as necessary, when approved by the state, individual contributors. Upon request, staff members conduct training programs within the state on law enforcement record-keeping and crime-reporting procedures. Following audit standards established by the federal government, the FBI conducts an audit of each state’s UCR data collection procedures once every 3 years. Should circumstances develop whereby the state program does not comply with the aforementioned requirements, the national program may institute a direct collection of data from law enforcement agencies within the state.

Reporting procedures

Offenses known and value of property—Law enforcement agencies tabulate the number of Part I offenses brought to their attention based on records of all reports of crime received from victims, officers who discover infractions, or other sources, and submit them each month to the FBI either directly or through their state UCR Programs. Part I offenses include murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. Law enforcement agencies also submit monthly to the FBI the value of property stolen and recovered in connection with the offenses and detailed information pertaining to criminal homicide.

Unfounded offenses and clearances—When, through investigation, an agency determines that complaints of crimes are unfounded or false, the agency eliminates that offense from its crime tally through an entry on the monthly report. The report also provides the total number of actual Part I offenses, the number of offenses cleared, and the number of clearances that involve only offenders under the age of 18. (Law enforcement can clear crimes in one of two ways:  by the arrest of at least one person who is charged and turned over to the court for prosecution or by exceptional means—when some element beyond law enforcement’s control precludes the arrest of a known offender.)

Persons arrested—In addition to reporting Part I offenses, law enforcement agencies provide monthly to the UCR Program data on the age, sex, race, and ethnicity of persons arrested for Part I and Part II offenses. Part II offenses encompass all crimes, except traffic violations, that are not classified as Part I offenses.

Officers killed or assaulted, and law enforcement employment—Law enforcement agencies also report monthly to the UCR Program information regarding law enforcement officers killed or assaulted, and yearly, the number of full-time sworn and civilian law enforcement personnel employed as of October 31.

Hate crimes—At the end of each quarter, law enforcement agencies report summarized data on hate crimes, i.e., specific offenses that were motivated by an offender’s bias against the perceived race, gender and gender identity, religion, disability, ethnic/national origin, sexual orientation, or ethnicity of the victim. Those agencies participating in the UCR Program’s National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) submit hate crime data monthly.

Editing procedures

The UCR Program thoroughly examines each report it receives for arithmetical accuracy and for deviations in crime data from month to month and from present to past years’ data that may indicate errors. The UCR staff members compare aggregated data from agencies of similar population size to identify any unusual fluctuations in an agency’s crime counts. Large variations in crime levels may indicate modified records procedures, incomplete reporting, or changes in the jurisdiction’s geopolitical structure.

Evaluation of trends—Data reliability is a high priority of the FBI, which brings any deviations or arithmetical adjustments to the attention of state UCR Programs or the submitting agencies. Typically, FBI staff members study the monthly reports to evaluate periodic trends prepared for individual reporting units. Any significant increase or decrease becomes the subject of a special inquiry. Changes in crime reporting procedures or annexations that affect an agency’s jurisdiction can influence the level of reported crime. When this occurs, the FBI excludes the figures for specific crime categories or totals, if necessary, from the trend tabulations.

Training for contributors—In addition to the evaluation of trends, the FBI provides training seminars and instructional materials on crime reporting procedures to assist contributors in complying with UCR standards. Throughout the country, the national program maintains liaison with state UCR Programs and law enforcement personnel and holds training sessions to explain the purpose of the program, the rules of uniform classification and scoring, and the methods of assembling the information for reporting. When an individual agency has specific problems in compiling its crime statistics and its remedial efforts are unsuccessful, personnel from the FBI’s Criminal Justice Information Services Division may visit the contributor to aid in resolving the difficulties.

Summary Reporting System User Manual—The national UCR Program published the Summary Reporting System (SRS) User Manual (June 20, 2013) which details procedures for classifying and scoring offenses and serves as the contributing agencies’ basic resource for preparing reports. The national staff also produces correspondence to UCR contributors as needed and the UCR Program Quarterly. These provide policy updates and new information, as well as clarification of reporting issues.

The final responsibility for data submissions rests with the individual contributing law enforcement agency. Although the FBI makes every effort through its editing procedures, training practices, and correspondence to ensure the validity of the data it receives, the accuracy of the statistics depends primarily on the adherence of each contributor to the established standards of reporting. Deviations from these established standards that the national UCR Program cannot resolve may be brought to the attention of the Criminal Justice Information Systems Committees of the International Association of Chiefs of Police and the National Sheriffs’ Association.

Population estimation

For the 2016 population estimates used in this publication, the FBI computed individual rates of growth from one year to the next for every city/town and county using 2010 decennial population counts and 2011 through 2015 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. Each agency’s rates of growth were averaged; that average was then applied and added to its 2015 Census population estimate to derive the agency’s 2016 population estimate.

Population totals for 2000 and 2010 are from the U.S. Census Bureau’s decennial population counts.

NIBRS conversion

Thirty-three state programs are certified to provide their UCR data in the expanded NIBRS format. For presentation in this publication, the NIBRS data were converted to the historical SRS data. The UCR Program staff constructed the NIBRS database to allow for such conversion so that UCR’s long-running time series could continue.

Crime trends

By showing fluctuations from year to year, trend statistics offer the data user an added perspective from which to study crime. Percent change tabulations in this publication are computed only for reporting agencies that provided comparable data for the periods under consideration. The FBI excludes from the trend calculations all figures except those received for common months from common agencies. Also excluded are unusual fluctuations of data that the FBI determines are the result of such variables as improved records procedures, annexations, etc.

Publication Annotation

Narrative portions of this publication present percentage breakdowns for various facets of tabular data. Where percentage breakdowns are used, percentages may not add to 100.0 percent due to rounding.

Caution to users

Data users should exercise care in making any direct comparison between data in this publication and those in prior issues of Crime in the United States. Because of differing levels of participation from year to year and reporting problems that require the FBI to estimate crime counts for certain contributors, some data may not be comparable from year to year. In addition, this publication may contain updates to data provided in prior years’ publications. For example, because of the receipt of additional data after the 2015 publication deadline, the 2015 Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) data in that publication may not match the 2015 SHR data in this 2016 publication.

2016 arrest data considerations

  • No 2016 arrest data were received from the District of Columbia’s Metropolitan Police Department. The two agencies in the District of Columbia for which 12 months of arrest data were received, the District of Columbia Fire and Emergency Medical Services:  Arson Investigation Unit, and the Metro Transit Police, have no attributable population.
  • For 2016, only arrest totals (with no age or gender breakdowns) are available for Florida. Therefore, Florida arrest totals are included only in Table 22, “Arrests by State, 2016.”
  • Limited arrest data were received from the Illinois state UCR Program. (Arrest counts presented in Table 22, “Arrests by State, 2016” are for Chicago and Rockford only.)
  • No 2016 arrest data were received from the New York City Police Department. However, arrest totals for this agency were estimated by the national UCR Program and were included in Table 18 “Estimated Number of Arrests, United States, 2016.”
  • Beginning in 2010, the national UCR Program no longer publishes data for runaways.

Offense estimation

Tables 1 through 3 and Table 5 of this publication contain statistics for the entire United States. Because not all law enforcement agencies provide data for complete reporting periods, the FBI includes estimated crime numbers in these national presentations. The FBI estimates data for three areas:  Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), cities outside MSAs, and nonmetropolitan counties. The FBI computes estimates for participating agencies not providing 12 months of complete offense data. For agencies supplying 3 to 11 months of offense data, the national UCR Program estimates for the missing data by following a standard estimation procedure using the data provided by the agency. If an agency has supplied less than 3 months of data, the FBI computes estimates by using the known crime figures of similar areas within a state and assigning the same proportion of crime volumes to nonreporting agencies. The estimation process considers the following:  population size covered by the agency; type of jurisdiction, e.g., police department versus sheriff’s office; and geographic location.

Estimation of state-level data

In response to various circumstances, the FBI calculates estimated offense totals for certain states. For example, some states do not provide rape figures in accordance with UCR guidelines. In addition, problems at the state level have, at times, resulted in no useable data. Also, the efforts to convert to NIBRS have contributed to the need for unique estimation procedures. A summary of state-specific and offense-specific estimation procedures follows.

State

Year(s)

Reason for Estimation

Estimation Method

Delaware

1998

The state UCR Program was unable to provide forcible rape figures in accordance with national UCR guidelines.

The forcible rape total was estimated by reducing the number of reported offenses by the proportion of male forcible rape victims statewide.

Illinois

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

The state UCR Program was unable to provide complete offense figures in accordance with UCR guidelines.

Valid violent crime and property crime offense counts, with the exception of forcible rape, were available for most of the largest cities (100,000 and over in population). For other agencies, the only available counts generated by the Illinois state UCR Program were state totals based upon an incident-level system without indication of multiple offenses recorded within single incidents. Therefore, the UCR Hierarchy Rule could not be applied in order to convert the state’s data to SRS data. (The Hierarchy Rule requires that only the most serious offense in a multiple-offense criminal incident is counted.) To arrive at a comparable state estimate to be included in national compilations, the Illinois state UCR Program’s state totals (which were inflated because of the nonapplication of the Hierarchy Rule) were reduced by the proportion of multiple offenses reported within single incidents in the NIBRS database. Valid totals for the large cities were excluded from the reduction process.

2006 2007 2008 2009

The state UCR Program was unable to provide forcible rape figures in accordance with UCR guidelines.

Forcible rape figures for Rockford include only the forcible rape offenses with female victims that were extracted from the agency’s NIBRS data.

To derive the state forcible rape estimate, the percentage of female forcible rape victims was extracted from all NIBRS incidents in which a forcible sex offense was reported. That percentage was applied to the forcible rape count received from the Illinois state UCR Program.

Kansas

1997 1998 1999 2000

The state UCR Program was unable to provide complete offense figures in accordance with UCR guidelines.

1997–The Kansas state estimate was extrapolated from 1996 January-June state totals provided by the Kansas state UCR Program.

1998–To arrive at 1998 estimates, 1997 state totals supplied by the Kansas state UCR Program were updated using 1998 crime trends for the West North Central Division.

1999–To arrive at 1999 estimates, 1998 state totals supplied by the Kansas state UCR Program were updated using 1999 crime trends for the West North Central Division.

2000–To arrive at 2000 estimates, 1999 state estimates were updated using 2000 crime trends for the West North Central Division.

Kentucky

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

The state UCR Program was unable to provide complete offense figures in accordance with UCR guidelines.

1997–The 1996 and 1997 percent changes registered for the East South Central Division were applied to valid 1996 state totals to effect 1997 state totals.

1998–State totals were estimated by using 1997 figures for the nonreporting areas and applying 1997 versus 1998 percent changes in the East South Central Division. The estimates for the nonreporting areas were then increased by any actual 1998 crime counts received.

1999–To arrive at 1999 estimates, 1998 state totals supplied by the Kentucky state UCR Program were updated using 1999 crime trends for the East South Central Division.

2000–To arrive at 2000 estimates, 1999 state totals supplied by the Kentucky state UCR Program were updated using 2000 crime trends for the East South Central Division.

2001–To arrive at the 2001 estimates, the 2000 state estimates were updated using 2001 crime trends reported for the East South Central Division.

2002–To obtain the 2002 state crime counts, the FBI contacted the state UCR Program, and the state agency provided their latest state totals, 2000. Therefore, the 2001 state estimates were updated for inclusion in the 2002 edition of Crime in the United States by using the 2001 crime trends for the East South Central Division. To derive the 2002 state estimate, the 2002 crime trends for the geographic division were applied to the adjusted 2001 state estimate.

2003–To obtain the 2003 estimates, the 2003 crime trends for the East South Central Division were applied to adjusted 2002 state estimates. The 2002 state counts were reestimated by applying the 2002 crime trends for the East South Central Division using more current figures, 2001 totals provided by the state UCR Program. The adjusted 2002 estimates differ from the figures published in the 2002 edition of Crime in the United States which were originally estimated using 2001 totals.

Maine

1999

The state UCR Program was unable to provide complete offense figures in accordance with UCR guidelines.

The Maine Department of Public Safety forwarded monthly January through October crime counts for each law enforcement contributor; since 12 months of data were not received, the FBI estimated for the missing data following standard estimation procedures to arrive at a 1999 state total.

Minnesota

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

The state UCR Program was unable to provide forcible rape figures in accordance with UCR guidelines.

2005–To arrive at a comparable state estimate for forcible rape offenses to be included in national compilations, Minnesota’s forcible rape total was estimated by using the national rates per 100,000 inhabitants within the eight population groups and proportionally assigning forcible rape volumes to Minnesota’s population groups.

2006-2012–Valid forcible rape figures were available for Minneapolis and St. Paul. To arrive at a comparable state estimate for forcible rape offenses to be included in national compilations, the rest of Minnesota’s forcible rape totals were estimated by using the national rates per 100,000 inhabitants within the eight population groups and proportionally assigning forcible rape volumes to Minnesota’s population groups.

Montana

1997 1998 1999 2000

The state UCR Program was unable to provide complete offense figures in accordance with UCR guidelines.

1997–The 1996 and 1997 percent changes registered for the Mountain Division, in which Montana is categorized, were applied to valid 1996 state totals to effect 1997 state totals.

1998–State totals were estimated by using 1997 figures for the nonreporting areas and applying 1997 versus 1998 percent changes for the Mountain Division. The estimates for the nonreporting areas were then increased by any actual 1998 crime counts received.

1999–To arrive at 1999 estimates, 1998 state totals supplied by the Montana state UCR Program were updated using 1999 crime trends for the Mountain Division.

2000–To arrive at 2000 estimates, 1999 state totals supplied by the Montana state UCR Program were updated using 2000 crime trends for the Mountain Division.

New Hampshire

1997 1998 1999

The state UCR Program was unable to provide complete offense figures in accordance with UCR guidelines.

1997–The 1996 and 1997 percent changes registered for the New England Division were applied to valid 1996 state totals to effect 1997 state totals.

1998–State totals were estimated by using 1997 figures for the nonreporting areas and applying 1997 versus 1998 percent changes for the New England Division. The estimates for the nonreporting areas were then increased by any actual 1998 crime counts received.

1999–The state totals were estimated by using the 1998 figures for the 1999 nonreporting areas and applying the 2-year percent change for the New England Division.

Vermont

1997

The state UCR Program was unable to provide complete offense figures in accordance with UCR guidelines.

The 1996 and 1997 percent changes registered for the New England Division were applied to valid 1996 state totals to effect 1997 state totals.

Wisconsin

1998

The state UCR Program was unable to provide complete offense figures in accordance with UCR guidelines.

State totals were estimated by using 1997 figures for the nonreporting areas and applying 1997 versus 1998 percent changes for the East North Central Division. The estimates for the nonreporting areas were then increased by any actual 1998 crime counts received.


Table methodology

The tables in this report are based upon varying levels of data submissions. For example, some participating agencies may submit data for some but not all months of the reporting year. Using well-established procedures, the FBI estimates for missing offense data for agencies with partial reports and for nonreporting agencies and then aggregates these estimates with data reported to determine the number of offenses for each state and the nation. Tables 1–3, 5, and 18 present these approximations. In addition, various circumstances require the FBI to estimate offense totals from time to time for some states. (An explanation of the estimation procedures applied to particular states during specific reporting years is provided in the Offense Estimation section.)

To be included in Tables 6–9 and 13 and 14, which provide statistics for specific jurisdictions and states, agencies must submit 12 months of complete data prior to the FBI’s established deadlines. To be included in Table 12, agencies must submit supplementary homicide data. Tables 10–11, 15–17, and 19–25, provide the number of reporting agencies (data source) and the total population covered by their collective jurisdictions. To be included in Tables 26–29, agencies must submit officer and civilian law enforcement employee counts as of October 31. For information on the classification of jurisdictions, see Area Definitions.

The tabular presentation that follows briefly describes the data sources and the methods used to construct Tables 1–29.

(1) Table

(2)  Database

(3)  Table Construction

(4)  General Comments

1- 1A

The data used in creating the estimates for these tables were from all law enforcement agencies participating in the UCR Program (including those submitting less than 12 months of data).

Crime statistics for the nation include estimated offense totals (except arson) for agencies submitting less than 12 months of offense reports for each year.

These tables provide the estimated number and rate (per 100,000 inhabitants) of reported crimes in the United States for 1996 through 2015, as well as the
2-, 5-, and 10-year trends for 2015 based on these estimates.

For the 2016 population estimates used in this table, the FBI computed individual rates of growth from one year to the next for every city/town and county using 2010 decennial population counts and 2011 through 2015 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. Each agency’s rates of growth were averaged; that average was then applied and added to its 2015 Census population estimate to derive the agency’s 2016 population estimate.

The UCR Program does not have sufficient data to estimate for arson.

The crime figures for 2015 have been adjusted from the prior year’s publication.

Violent crime includes the offenses of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, rape (legacy definition), robbery, and aggravated assault. Property crime includes the offenses of burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft.

Beginning in 2013, the definition of a rape offense, as well as the collection and presentation of rape data, changed. See Rape Addendum for details.

2

The data used in creating the estimates for this table were from all law enforcement agencies in the UCR Program (including those submitting less than 12 months of data).

Crime statistics include estimated offense totals (except arson) for agencies submitting less than 12 months of offense reports for each year.

This table provides estimated number and rate (per 100,000 inhabitants) of crime in each region, geographic division, and state in 2015 and 2016, and the percent change in each.

The FBI derives state totals by estimating for nonreporting and partially reporting agencies within each state. Using the state’s individual agency data and estimates, the program aggregates a state total.

For the 2016 population estimates used in this table, the FBI computed individual rates of growth from one year to the next for every city/town and county using 2010 decennial population counts and 2011 through 2015 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. Each agency’s rates of growth were averaged; that average was then applied and added to its 2015 Census population estimate to derive the agency’s 2016 population estimate.

Any comparisons of crime among different locales should take into consideration relevant factors in addition to the area’s crime statistics. UCR Statistics:  Their Proper Use provides more details concerning the proper use of UCR statistics.

The UCR Program does not have sufficient data to estimate for arson.

Beginning in 2013, the definition of a rape offense, as well as the collection and presentation of rape data, changed. See Rape Addendum for details.

3

The data used in creating the estimates for this table were from all law enforcement agencies in the UCR Program (including those submitting less than 12 months of data).

Crime statistics include estimated offense totals (except arson) for agencies submitting less than 12 months of offense reports for each year.

This table provides the estimated number of offenses and the rate of offenses per 100,000 inhabitants for each state.

This table provides the estimated number of offenses and the actual number of offenses reported in MSAs, cities outside metropolitan areas, and nonmetropolitan counties; the rate (per 100,000 inhabitants) for each grouping; and the estimated population for each state.

The statistics under the heading “Area actually reporting” represent offense totals for agencies submitting 12 months of data and estimated totals for agencies submitting less than 12 but more than 2 months of data.

The statistics in the table under the heading “Estimated total” represent the totals under “Area actually reporting” plus estimated totals for agencies submitting 2 months or less of data.

For the 2016 population estimates used in this table, the FBI computed individual rates of growth from one year to the next for every city/town and county using 2010 decennial population counts and 2011 through 2015 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. Each agency’s rates of growth were averaged; that average was then applied and added to its 2015 Census population estimate to derive the agency’s 2016 population estimate.

The UCR Program does not have sufficient data to estimate for arson.

Any comparisons of crime among different locales should take into consideration relevant factors in addition to the area’s crime statistics. UCR Statistics:  Their Proper Use provides more details concerning the proper use of UCR statistics.

Beginning in 2013, the definition of a rape offense, as well as the collection and presentation of rape data, changed. See Rape Addendum for details.

4

The data used in creating the estimates for this table were from all law enforcement agencies in the UCR Program (including those submitting less than 12 months of data).

Crime statistics include estimated offense totals (except arson) for agencies submitting less than 12 months of offense reports for each year.

This table provides actual and estimated crime data for MSAs and their estimated populations, the counties included in each MSA, and estimated populations for principal cities in MSAs. The table also includes statistics by area actually reporting, estimated total, and rate (per 100,000 inhabitants).

This table provides crime statistics for the Metropolitan Divisions (MDs), which are subdivisions of MSAs that have a core population of at least 2.5 million people. The table also includes the rate (per 100,000 inhabitants) of offenses for each MD and actual and estimated offense totals.

This table includes all currently designated MSAs in which at least 75 percent of the agencies within the MSA reported data to the UCR Program and for which the principal city/cities submitted 12 months of complete data for 2016.

The statistics under the heading “Total area actually reporting” represent offense totals for agencies submitting 12 months of data and estimated totals for agencies submitting less than 12 but more than
2 months of data.

The statistics under the heading “Estimated total” represent the above “Total area actually reporting” plus estimated totals for agencies submitting 2 months or less of data.

For the 2016 population estimates used in this table, the FBI computed individual rates of growth from one year to the next for every city/town and county using 2010 decennial population counts and 2011 through 2015 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. Each agency’s rates of growth were averaged; that average was then applied and added to its 2015 Census population estimate to derive the agency’s 2016 population estimate.

The UCR Program does not have sufficient data to estimate for arson.

Any comparisons of crime among different locales should take into consideration relevant factors in addition to the area’s crime statistics. UCR Statistics:  Their Proper Use provides more details concerning the proper use of UCR statistics.

Beginning in 2013, the definition of a rape offense, as well as the collection and presentation of rape data, changed. See Rape Addendum for details.

 

5

The data used in creating the estimates for this table were from all law enforcement agencies participating in the UCR Program (including those submitting less than 12 months of data).

Crime statistics include estimated offense tables (except arson) for agencies submitting less than 12 months of offense reports for each year.

This table provides estimations for the offenses of murder, rape, robbery, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft for the nation from 2012 to 2016.

This table provides additional detail for the following offenses:

Robbery by location (such as street/highway, bank, residence).

Burglary by location (residence or nonresidence) and time of day (night, day, or unknown).

Larceny-theft by type (such as pocket-picking, purse-snatching, and shoplifting).

The FBI estimates the breakdowns for robbery, burglary, and larceny-theft by first calculating the proportion of the total offenses represented by the breakdowns as presented in Table 15 and applying those percentages to the estimated offense totals as presented in Table 2.

The data source from which the FBI derives Table 5 does not include aggravated assault or arson data.

Beginning in 2013, the definition of a rape offense, as well as the collection and presentation of rape data, changed. See Rape Addendum for details.

6

The data used in creating this table were from all city and town law enforcement agencies submitting 12 months of complete offense data for 2016.

This table provides the volume of violent crime (murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) and property crime (burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft) as reported by city and town law enforcement agencies (listed alphabetically by state) that contributed data to the UCR Program. (Note:  Arson is not included in the property crime total in this table; however, if complete arson data were provided, they will appear in the arson column.)

The FBI does not publish arson data unless it receives data from either the agency or the state for all 12 months of the calendar year.

For the 2016 population estimates used in this table, the FBI computed individual rates of growth from one year to the next for every city/town and county using 2010 decennial population counts and 2011 through 2015 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. Each agency’s rates of growth were averaged; that average was then applied and added to its 2015 Census population estimate to derive the agency’s 2016 population estimate.

Readers should take into consideration relevant factors in addition to the areas’ crime statistics when making any valid comparisons of crime among different locales. UCR Statistics:  Their Proper Use provides more details concerning the proper use of UCR statistics.

When the FBI determines that an agency’s data collection methodology does not comply with national UCR guidelines, the figures for that agency’s offense(s) will not be included in the table, and the discrepancy will be explained in a footnote.

Beginning in 2013, the definition of a rape offense, as well as the collection and presentation of rape data, changed. See Rape Addendum for details.

7

The data used in creating this table were from all university/college law enforcement agencies submitting 12 months of complete offense data for 2016.

This table provides the volume of violent crime (murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) and property crime (burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft) as reported by university/college law enforcement agencies (listed alphabetically by state) that contributed data to the UCR Program. (Note:  Arson is not included in the property crime total in this table; however, if complete arson data were provided, they will appear in the arson column.)

The student enrollment figures provided by the U.S. Department of Education are for 2015, the most recent available. They include full- and part-time students.

The FBI does not publish arson data unless it receives data from either the agency or the state for all 12 months of the calendar year.

Readers should take into consideration relevant factors in addition to the areas’ crime statistics when making any valid comparisons of crime among different locales. UCR Statistics:  Their Proper Use provides more details concerning the proper use of UCR statistics.

When the FBI determines that an agency’s data collection methodology does not comply with national UCR guidelines, the figure for that agency’s offense(s) will not be included in the table, and the discrepancy will be explained in a footnote.

Beginning in 2013, the definition of a rape offense, as well as the collection and presentation of rape data, changed. See Rape Addendum for details.

8

 

The data used in creating this table were from all county law enforcement agencies submitting 12 months of complete offense data for 2016.

This table provides the volume of violent crime (murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) and property crime (burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft) as reported by law enforcement agencies (such as individual sheriffs’ offices and/or county police departments) in metropolitan counties and nonmetropolitan counties (listed alphabetically by state) that contributed data to the UCR Program. (Note:  Arson is not included in the property crime total in this table; however, if complete arson data were provided, they will appear in the arson column.)

The Metropolitan Counties classification encompasses jurisdictions covered by noncity law enforcement agencies located within currently designated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs). The Nonmetropolitan Counties classification encompasses jurisdictions covered by noncity agencies located outside currently designated MSAs.

The FBI does not publish arson data unless it receives data from either the agency or the state for all 12 months of the calendar year.

These data do not represent county totals because they exclude crime counts for city agencies and other types of agencies that have jurisdiction within each county.

Readers should take into consideration relevant factors in addition to the areas’ crime statistics when making any valid comparisons of crime among different locales. UCR Statistics:  Their Proper Use provides more details concerning the proper use of UCR statistics.

When the FBI determines that an agency’s data collection methodology does not comply with national UCR guidelines, the figure for that agency’s offense(s) will not be included in the table, and the discrepancy will be explained in a footnote.

Beginning in 2013, the definition of a rape offense, as well as the collection and presentation of rape data, changed. See Rape Addendum for details.

9

The data used in creating this table were from all state, tribal, and other law enforcement agencies submitting 12 months of complete offense data for 2016.

This table provides the volume of violent crime (murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) and property crime (burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft) as reported by state, tribal, and other law enforcement agencies (listed alphabetically by state) that contributed data to the UCR Program. (Note:  Arson is not included in the property crime total in this table; however, if complete arson data were provided, they will appear in the arson column.)

The FBI does not publish arson data unless it receives data from either the agency or the state for all 12 months of the calendar year.

 

These data represent reported crime from individual state or territorial law enforcement agencies (i.e., state police, highway patrol, tribal, and/or other law enforcement agencies managed by the state or territory) participating in the UCR Program.

Readers should take into consideration relevant factors in addition to the areas’ crime statistics when making any valid comparisons of crime among different locales. UCR Statistics:  Their Proper Use provides more details concerning the proper use of UCR statistics.

When the FBI determines that an agency’s data collection methodology does not comply with national UCR guidelines, the figure for that agency’s offense(s) will not be included in the table, and the discrepancy will be explained in a footnote.

Beginning in 2013, the definition of a rape offense, as well as the collection and presentation of rape data, changed. See Rape Addendum for details.

10

The data used in creating this table were from all law enforcement agencies submitting at least 6 common months of complete offense reports for 2015 and 2016.

This 2-year trend table provides the number of offenses for 2015 and 2016 and the percent change between these 2 years.

In calculating trends, the UCR Program includes only common reported months for individual agencies.

This table furnishes the number of agencies meeting the criteria for inclusion in this table and provides the estimated population for each population group.

For the 2016 population estimates used in this table, the FBI computed individual rates of growth from one year to the next for every city/town and county using 2010 decennial population counts and 2011 through 2015 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. Each agency’s rates of growth were averaged; that average was then applied and added to its 2015 Census population estimate to derive the agency’s 2016 population estimate.

Beginning in 2013, the definition of a rape offense, as well as the collection and presentation of rape data, changed. See Rape Addendum for details.

11

The data used in creating this table were from all law enforcement agencies submitting 12 months of complete data (except arson) for 2016.

This table provides the rate per 100,000 inhabitants and the number of offenses known to law enforcement for violent crime (murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) and property crime (burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft) for law enforcement agencies submitting 12 months of complete data (except arson) for 2016. In addition, this table furnishes the number of agencies meeting the criteria for inclusion in this table and provides the estimated population for each population group.

The FBI derived the offense rates by first dividing the total aggregated offense counts by the aggregated populations covered by contributing agencies for which 12 months of complete data were supplied and then multiplying the resulting figure by 100,000.

For the 2016 population estimates used in this table, the FBI computed individual rates of growth from one year to the next for every city/town and county using 2010 decennial population counts and 2011 through 2015 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. Each agency’s rates of growth were averaged; that average was then applied and added to its 2015 Census population estimate to derive the agency’s 2016 population estimate.

The UCR Program does not have sufficient data to publish arson offenses.

Beginning in 2013, the definition of a rape offense, as well as the collection and presentation of rape data, changed. See Rape Addendum for details.

12

 

The data used in creating this table were from all law enforcement agencies that submitted supplementary homicide data for 2016.

This table provides the type of weapons used in murder offenses. The data are based on the aggregated data from agencies within each state for which supplementary homicide data (e.g., weapon information) were reported to the FBI. The table also includes a breakdown of the types of firearms used in murders (i.e., handguns, rifles, shotguns, or firearms [type unknown]).

The weapon totals are aggregated from all murders for which the FBI received supplemental homicide data for calendar year 2016.

The supplementary homicide data submitted by the Florida state UCR Program did not meet UCR guidelines and were not included in this table.

The FBI received limited supplementary homicide data from the Illinois and Alabama state UCR Programs.

13, 14

The data used in creating these tables were from all law enforcement agencies that submitted complete offense reports for 12 months in 2016.

These tables provide the type of weapons used in robberies (Table 13) and aggravated assaults (Table 14). The tables include the number of agencies that submitted data by state and the population covered by those agencies.

The weapon totals are aggregated from all robberies and aggravated assaults for which the FBI received weapon breakdowns.

For the 2016 population estimates used in this table, the FBI computed individual rates of growth from one year to the next for every city/town and county using 2010 decennial population counts and 2011 through 2015 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. Each agency’s rates of growth were averaged; that average was then applied and added to its 2015 Census population estimate to derive the agency’s 2016 population estimate.

The FBI received limited weapon data from the Illinois state UCR Program.

15, 16

The data used in creating these tables were from all law enforcement agencies submitting at least 6 months of complete property/ circumstance data for 2016.

The FBI derives trends by comparing statistics from agencies with at least 6 common months of complete data reports for 2015 and 2016.

Table 15 provides an analysis of the crimes of murder, rape, robbery, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft. The table also lists the number of these offenses reported in 2016 and the percentage change in the number of these offenses when compared with 2015 data.

The offense of aggravated assault is not included in Table 15. In the UCR Program, the taking of money or property in connection with an assault is reported as robbery.

The percent distribution statistics are based on the offense totals for the crimes of robbery, burglary, and larceny-theft.

This table furnishes the number of agencies meeting the criteria for inclusion in this table and provides the estimated population for each population group.

Table 16 provides property types, the reported value of stolen property, and the value of recovered property. This table also lists the percentage of recovered value of each property type.

For the 2016 population estimates used in this table, the FBI computed individual rates of growth from one year to the next for every city/town and county using 2010 decennial population counts and 2011 through 2015 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. Each agency’s rates of growth were averaged; that average was then applied and added to its 2015 Census population estimate to derive the agency’s 2016 population estimate.

The FBI presents offense totals for the crimes of murder and rape, and then, based on supplemental data supplied by law enforcement, the FBI computes average value lost totals for the crimes of robbery, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft.

The data source from which the FBI derives the information for this table does not include arson.

Beginning in 2013, the definition of a rape offense, as well as the collection and presentation of rape data, changed. See Rape Addendum for details.

17

The data used in creating these tables were from all law enforcement agencies submitting at least 6 months of complete offense reports for 2016.

These tables provide the number of violent crimes, property crimes, and arsons with a breakdown of the offenses known to law enforcement and the percentage of those offenses that were cleared by arrest or exceptional means.

Not all agencies submit data reports for arson to the FBI. Therefore, the agency counts and estimated population presented in this table do not represent participation for the reporting of arson.

The FBI bases percent cleared statistics on aggregated offense and clearance totals.

This table furnishes the number of agencies meeting the criteria for inclusion in this table and provides the estimated population for each population group.

For the 2016 population estimates used in this table, the FBI computed individual rates of growth from one year to the next for every city/town and county using 2010 decennial population counts and 2011 through 2015 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. Each agency’s rates of growth were averaged; that average was then applied and added to its 2015 Census population estimate to derive the agency’s 2016 population estimate.

Beginning in 2013, the definition of a rape offense, as well as the collection and presentation of rape data, changed. See Rape Addendum for details.

 

18

The data used in creating the estimates for this table were from all law enforcement agencies submitting 12 months of arrest data for 2016.

This table provides the estimated number of persons arrested in the United States in 2016.

The arrest totals presented are national estimates based on the arrest statistics of all law enforcement agencies submitting 12 months of arrest data to the UCR Program.

The estimated total number of arrests in this table is the sum of estimated arrest volumes for 27 offenses, excluding suspicion.

The arrest data for each of the individual offenses in this table is the sum of the estimated volume of arrests for that offense within each of the eight population groups. (See Area Definitions.)

The FBI calculated arrest rates using data from all law enforcement agencies submitting a complete year of arrest data (i.e., complete reporters), then multiplying this complete-response arrest rate by the total population (including those of incomplete and non-reporters) in each arrest offense and population group and then multiplying by 100,000 for each arrest offense.

 

Beginning in 2013, the definition of a rape offense, as well as the collection and presentation of rape data, changed. See Rape Addendum for details.

19

The data used in creating this table were from all law enforcement agencies submitting 12 months of arrest data for 2016.

This table provides the number of persons arrested and the arrest rate per 100,000 inhabitants for the four regions of the United States and the nation as a whole in 2016.

The FBI derived the arrest rates by first dividing the total number of arrests by the aggregated populations covered by contributing agencies and then multiplying the resulting figure by 100,000.

For the 2016 population estimates used in this table, the FBI computed individual rates of growth from one year to the next for every city/town and county using 2010 decennial population counts and 2011 through 2015 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. Each agency’s rates of growth were averaged; that average was then applied and added to its 2015 Census population estimate to derive the agency’s 2016 population estimate.

These data represent the number of persons arrested; however, some persons may be arrested more than once during a year. Therefore, the statistics in this table could, in some cases, represent multiple arrests of the same person.

Beginning in 2013, the definition of a rape offense, as well as the collection and presentation of rape data, changed. See Rape Addendum for details.

20, 21

The data used in creating these tables were from all law enforcement agencies submitting 12 months of arrest data for 2016.

These tables provide the number of persons arrested nationwide in 2016 for the offenses for which the UCR Program collects arrest data. Table 20 provides these data broken down by the age of the arrestee and include the percent distribution of arrests by offense type. Table 21 provides the data by the race and ethnicity of the arrestee and the percent distribution of arrests by race for each offense.

For the 2016 population estimates used in this table, the FBI computed individual rates of growth from one year to the next for every city/town and county using 2010 decennial population counts and 2011 through 2015 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. Each agency’s rates of growth were averaged; that average was then applied and added to its 2015 Census population estimate to derive the agency’s 2016 population estimate.

These data represent the number of persons arrested; however, some persons may be arrested more than once during a year. Therefore, the statistics in this table could, in some cases, represent multiple arrests of the same person.

The totals provided in Table 21 reflect only those persons arrested by law enforcement agencies that provided race information to the UCR Program; therefore, the totals may not match those shown in other arrest tables for the nation.

In Table 21, the ethnicity totals are representative of those agencies that provided ethnicity breakdowns. Not all agencies provide ethnicity data; therefore, the race and ethnicity totals will not be equal.

Beginning in 2013, the definition of a rape offense, as well as the collection and presentation of rape data, changed. See Rape Addendum for details.

22

The data used in creating this table were from all law enforcement agencies that submitted 12 months of arrest data for 2016.

This table provides arrest data for the offenses for which the UCR Program collects data and is broken down by state for 2016. The table provides both total arrests and arrests of juveniles (persons under the age of 18).

Arrest totals are aggregates of the totals reported by agencies providing data to the UCR Program within each state.

For the 2016 population estimates used in this table, the FBI computed individual rates of growth from one year to the next for every city/town and county using 2010 decennial population counts and 2011 through 2015 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. Each agency’s rates of growth were averaged; that average was then applied and added to its 2015 Census population estimate to derive the agency’s 2016 population estimate.

These data represent the number of persons arrested; however, some persons may be arrested more than once during a year. Therefore, the statistics in this table could, in some cases, represent multiple arrests of the same person.

Any comparison of statistics in this table should take into consideration variances in arrest practices, particularly for Part II crimes. (Offenses in Uniform Crime Reporting defines the UCR Program’s Part II offenses.)

23

The information in this table is derived from law enforcement employee counts (as of October 31, 2016) submitted by participating agencies.

This table provides the number and rate per 1,000 inhabitants of law enforcement employees broken down by region, geographic division, and population group.

The totals for full-time law enforcement employees in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties are combined in this table.

For the 2016 population estimates used in this table, the FBI computed individual rates of growth from one year to the next for every city/town and county using 2010 decennial population counts and 2011 through 2015 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. Each agency’s rates of growth were averaged; that average was then applied and added to its 2015 Census population estimate to derive the agency’s 2016 population estimate.

The UCR Program defines law enforcement officers as individuals who ordinarily carry a firearm and a badge, have full arrest powers, and are paid from governmental funds set aside specifically to pay sworn law enforcement.

Civilian employees include full-time agency personnel such as clerks, radio dispatchers, meter attendants, stenographers, jailers, correctional officers, and mechanics.

 

24

The information in this table is derived from law enforcement officer counts (as of October 31, 2016) submitted by participating agencies.

This table provides the number and rate per 1,000 inhabitants of sworn law enforcement officers broken down by region, geographic division, and population group.

The totals for full-time law enforcement officers in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties are combined in this table.

For the 2016 population estimates used in this table, the FBI computed individual rates of growth from one year to the next for every city/town and county using 2010 decennial population counts and 2011 through 2015 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. Each agency’s rates of growth were averaged; that average was then applied and added to its 2015 Census population estimate to derive the agency’s 2016 population estimate.

The UCR Program defines law enforcement officers as individuals who ordinarily carry a firearm and a badge, have full arrest powers, and are paid from governmental funds set aside specifically to pay sworn law enforcement.

 

25

The information in this table is derived from law enforcement employee counts (as of October 31, 2016) submitted by participating agencies.

This table includes the number of reported sworn law enforcement officers and civilian employees broken down by population group. The totals are also broken down by percent male and percent female.

For the 2016 population estimates used in this table, the FBI computed individual rates of growth from one year to the next for every city/town and county using 2010 decennial population counts and 2011 through 2015 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. Each agency’s rates of growth were averaged; that average was then applied and added to its 2015 Census population estimate to derive the agency’s 2016 population estimate.

The UCR Program defines law enforcement officers as individuals who ordinarily carry a firearm and a badge, have full arrest powers, and are paid from governmental funds set aside specifically to pay sworn law enforcement.

Civilian employees include full-time agency personnel such as clerks, radio dispatchers, meter attendants, stenographers, jailers, correctional officers, and mechanics.

26

The information in this table is derived from law enforcement employee counts (as of October 31, 2016) submitted by participating agencies.

This table provides the number of law enforcement officers and civilians employed by city/town law enforcement agencies listed alphabetically by state.

For the 2016 population estimates used in this table, the FBI computed individual rates of growth from one year to the next for every city/town and county using 2010 decennial population counts and 2011 through 2015 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau. Each agency’s rates of growth were averaged; that average was then applied and added to its 2015 Census population estimate to derive the agency’s 2016 population estimate.

The UCR Program defines law enforcement officers as individuals who ordinarily carry a firearm and a badge, have full arrest powers, and are paid from governmental funds set aside specifically to pay sworn law enforcement.

Civilian employees include full-time agency personnel such as clerks, radio dispatchers, meter attendants, stenographers, jailers, correctional officers, and mechanics.

27

The information in this table is derived from law enforcement employee counts (as of October 31, 2016) submitted by participating agencies.

This table provides the number of law enforcement officers and civilians employed by universities and colleges listed alphabetically by state.

The student enrollment figures provided by the United States Department of Education are for the 2015 school year, the most recent year for which the data are available. The figures include full-time and part-time students.

The UCR Program defines law enforcement officers as individuals who ordinarily carry a firearm and a badge, have full arrest powers, and are paid from governmental funds set aside specifically to pay sworn law enforcement.

Civilian employees include full-time agency personnel such as clerks, radio dispatchers, meter attendants, stenographers, jailers, correctional officers, and mechanics.

28

The information in this table is derived from law enforcement employee counts (as of October 31, 2016) submitted by participating agencies.

This table provides the number of law enforcement officers and civilians employed by agencies in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties listed alphabetically by state.

The UCR Program defines law enforcement officers as individuals who ordinarily carry a firearm and a badge, have full arrest powers, and are paid from governmental funds set aside specifically to pay sworn law enforcement.

Civilian employees include full-time agency personnel such as clerks, radio dispatchers, meter attendants, stenographers, jailers, correctional officers, and mechanics.

29

The information in this table is derived from law enforcement employee counts (as of October 31, 2016) submitted by participating agencies.

This table provides the number of law enforcement officers and civilians employed by state, tribal, and other agencies, listed alphabetically by state.

The UCR Program defines law enforcement officers as individuals who ordinarily carry a firearm and a badge, have full arrest powers, and are paid from governmental funds set aside specifically to pay sworn law enforcement.

Civilian employees include full-time agency personnel such as clerks, radio dispatchers, meter attendants, stenographers, jailers, correctional officers, and mechanics.